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Sunday, June 26, 2011

National provision of football

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National provision of Football


Sam Hughes 1t-Physical Education


History


The Beautiful Game, as it is known across the world, was first organised in England in the 1800s. The World Cup, held every four years, is the most-watched sports event on Earth. There are more member-countries of FIFA, the sports governing body, than there are in the United Nations.


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The modern game began in England but interest soon spread around Europe and other continents. FIFA (Federation Internationale de Football) was created in France in 104 as a recognition of this growth on an international level and is the football world’s governing body. Seven national associations - Belgium, Denmark, Spain, France, Netherlands, Sweden and Switzerland - were the founders. FIFA launched the Olympic Football title in 14 and the World Cup in 10. The first ever FIFA World Cup for women was held in China in 11.


Governing Bodies


There are six continental confederations (Asian Football Confederation - AFC, Confederation Africaine de Football - CAF, Confederacion Norte-Centroamericany del Caribe de Futbol - CONCACAF, Union des Associations Europeenes de Football - UEFA, Confederacion Sudamericana de Futbol - CONMEBOL, Oceania Football Confederation - OFC) which organise club and national team competitions for their respective continents. The English Football Association is affiliated to UEFA. UEFA (Union des Associations Europeennes de Football) was founded on 15 June 154. In 18, the first UEFA Championship for national women’s teams was held.


Over 100 years after the formation of The Football Association, football is the most popular sport in the world, played by nearly 50 million people, including 40 million women. The numbers of spectators in the stadiums and of television viewers amounts to billions.


Rules and laws


The first time that a standard ball was specified was for a representative game between the (London) Football Association and Sheffield Association in March 1866, when it was stated that Lillywhites No. 5 must be used. Later, the Harrow Chequers club proposed that a fixed size of ball should be used for the FAs Challenge Cup Competition. The general agreement was that Lillywhites number 5 should be used. After the tape measure was produced, the law became a ball of average circumference of not less than 7 inches and not more than 8 inches This rule was extended to encompass all games in 188. A standard weight followed in 188 from 1 to 15 ounces. This was amended in 17 to become 14 to 16 ounces.


It was the practice on mainland Europe, at least until the 140s, to use a smaller sized ball, the number 4. The England team were somewhat bemused to be asked to play with a no. 4 in an international in Portugal in 147. They finally persuaded the referee to use a no. 5, but after Tommy Lawton had opened the scoring for England, the players found a no. 4 had been substituted! England won 10-0, so it didnt help the Portuguese much!


The Cambridge rules of 1848 stated that it needed three of the opponents side between a forward player and the goal for him to be onside. However, the Upping ham rules of 186 remained strictly against the forward pass; if the ball is kicked by his own side past a player, he may not touch it, or advance, until one of the other side has first kicked it, or one of his own side, having followed it up, has been able, when in front of him, to kick it. The first set of Football Association rules agreed with the Upping ham idea.


As football developed in the 1860s and 1870s, the offside law proved the biggest argument between the clubs. Sheffield got rid of the kick through by amending their laws so that one member of the defending side was required between a forward player and the opponents goal; the Football Association adopted the Cambridge idea of three! Finally, Sheffield came into line with the F.A., and three players were the rule until 15.


The change to two players rule lead to an immediate increase in goal scoring. 4,700 goals were scored in 1848 Football League games in 14/5. It rose to 6,7 goals (from the same number of games) in 15/6.


in11 the distance of the opponents from the ball was increased to ten yards. A further amendment prevented the kicker of a corner to play the ball a second time until it had been played by another player, even if it rebounded to him after striking the upright. It is said that Evertons Sam Chedgzoy took a corner and dribbled the ball through his opponents and scored, thus forcing the change of law!


In 17, a clause was added allowing a goal to be scored direct from a free kick (including corners).


The penalty kick law now applied to offences 18 yards from the goal line, but within an 44 yard-wide area known as the penalty area. The penalty spot was now fixed, 1 yards from the goal and in the centre. A goal area 0 yards wide by 6 yards deep was introduced to replace the two semi-circles. There was one last little change to make, in 17; originally players could stand anywhere along the 18 yard line while a penalty was taken; a section of a circle with a 10 yard radius was added to give the penalty taker a little more room for his run up.


Structures for officiating and coaching


The first stage involved in becoming a referee is to register with your local County Football Association.


The second stage is to attend a basic Referees Course. This will involve around 10 classroom-based training sessions, followed by a written and oral exam, on the Laws of Association Football. On passing the exams, you become Level 8 referee, if you are under 16 years of age, or Level 7 referee if you are over 16. You may then officiate on local amateur (parks) football.


If you wish to become a Level 6 referee you must serve one year at Level 7 before being eligible for promotion. Promotion is usually decided through assessment, attendance at further training, successful completion of a test on the Laws of the game and a satisfactory average mark over 0 completed matches. The same criteria would apply for promotion to Level 5.


An assessment is when a senior referee (or retired referee) watches you referee, and provides you with a constructive report on your performance. Assessors also send a confidential mark on the copy of the report which is sent to your County F.A.


Level 5 referees may then be eligible for promotion to Senior Competitions (Level 4 rising to Level 1). This may involve refereeing in a supply league - Level 4 (a senior amateur league at County level), and being an assistant referee in a contributory league - Level (a semi professional league). Further promotion would take you on to a Panel League - Level and eventually, on to the National list of Referees - Level 1. The final promotion would be on to the International list where we have currently 10 referees. However, certain age limits apply - minimum and maximum - and a fitness test must be passed before each season.


The first step to become a coach is to enrol on a F.A. Coaching Course. By getting on the coaching ladder individuals have the opportunity to progress up through the various F.A. Coaching qualifications and to enhance their skills and knowledge in coaching.


The Football Association runs a wide variety of coaching courses, at the local and national levels, from all ranges of experience.#


Grass roots


The National Game Division of The F.A. may not be the associations most glamorous department but, with 40 staff, and a serious budget to spend on footballs grass-roots, it is now the largest and one of the most important.


Thus, the National Game Division is channelling over £0m a year into the games grass-roots, as part of a process designed not just to halt but to reverse decades of decline. The result is little short of a revolution for grass-roots football, with the prospect of a new dawn, heralding higher standards and better pitches, changing-rooms and facilities for clubs across the land.


The man leading this revolution is Steve Parkin, who joined The F.A. as the first Director of the National Game Division in July 000, after spending 1 years with Mars, where he had risen to become a European marketing director.


The National Game, he explains, covers all football below the Football League from the Conference to the parks.


Initiatives for potential ‘stars’


The key initiatives underway are


F.A. Funding The FA will invest £45 million via the Football Foundation into facility improvement projects over the next years.


Register of English Football Facilities (REFF) a national survey of all footballing facilities in England is currently underway. This will help to assess and prioritise pitch and facilities investment.


Local Football Partnerships County-based forums have been set up, led by County FAs, to bring together football and other partners to create and prioritise football facility and development plans in their area.


Investment in facilities will be prioritised and aligned to The FA National Game Strategy, linking football development programmes and The FA Charter Standard Scheme.





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