Friday, June 17, 2011


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What are proteins for?

The DNA sequences carried in each cell are blueprints. They are the instructions that tell the cell how to be part of an animal, plant, fungus or bacterium. Virus genes tell other cells how to make more viruses! The majority of genes are instructions that tell cells how to make proteins. Proteins are the active elements of cells. They aid and control the chemical reactions that make the cell work. They receive signals from outside of the cell. They control the processes by which proteins are made from the instructions in the genes. They also form the scaffolding that gives cells their shape and as well as parts of the linkages that stick cells together into tissues and organs.

Many drugs (both medicinal and illegal!) alter the work done by proteins. There are also a number of important diseases that are the direct result of mistakes in a genes sequence. These mistakes happen when the DNA is being copied and are passed on to the descendants of the creature in which the copying error was first made. Diseases such as Sickle Cell Anaemia, Cystic Fibrosis and Muscular Dystrophy come from this type of copying error or mutation. Cancer is caused by copying errors that occur in the lifetime of a creature that break down the control of cell growth.

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How Are Proteins Made?

Proteins, like DNA, are complicated molecules made up by sticking simple building blocks together in a chain. The Proteins are made of more types of building blocks than DNA. 0 kinds of amino acids are involved in making most proteins. Each type of amino acid can perform a different job. Some act like scaffolding, some keep the protein dissolved in water and others take part in the chemical processes that the protein controls.

The next great discovery in genetics, after the structure of the DNA molecule, was the way in which the sequence of DNA bases on the chain carry the information on how to make proteins. The cell first makes a copy of the DNA instructions. The DNA instructions contain a region which controls how often a copy is made. The copy is made of a different type of nucleic acid called RNA.

The RNA copy is moved to the protein making machinery in the cell which is called the ribosome. Every set of three RNA bases in a row control which amino acid is to be added to a growing protein molecule. A special three base code (usually ATG) tells the ribosome where the instructions on how to make the protein begin in the sequence. The copy of the DNA chain passes through this protein making machinery like a tape through a tape player. The ribosome, however, produces protein instead of sound!

How Does DNA Work?

DNA is a chain built up of four simple building blocks. The four types are adenine, cytosine, thymine and guanine or A, C, T and G for short. The shapes of A and T and of C and G are complementary. Each of the two pairs fit together neatly like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle. The two chains of the DNA structure stick together due to bonds which form between the complementary pairs of bases. It is the complementary base pairs that allow DNA to copy itself.

Under certain circumstances the two chains of the DNA molecule separate. New DNA bases come in and stick to their complementary partner on the existing chain. The new bases are then stuck together to make a daughter DNA chain. This process occurs for each of the original chains of the parent DNA molecule. Two daughter DNA chains are, therefore, formed.

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