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Monday, July 25, 2011

How key themes and issues are signilled at the outset of Jane Eyre

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The Bildungsroman, a novel that details the growth and development of a main character through several periods of life, began as a German genre in the seventeenth century, but by the mid eighteen hundreds it had become firmly established in England as well. Such important Victorian novels as Great Expectations, base themselves on this form, which continues as an important literary sub-genre even today. The Bildungsroman typically told the story of a man growing from boyhood to adulthood. Charlotte Bront�s appropriation of the form for her heroine, represents one of the many ways in which her novel, Jane Eyre, challenges the accepted Victorian conceptions of gender hierarchy, making the statement that a womans inner development merits as much attention and analysis as that of a man. Through a careful reading of Chapter one, this essay will attempt to suggest ways in which, in the light of my understanding of the novel; key themes and issues are signalled at the novel’s outset.


The novel opens on a dreary November afternoon at Gateshead, the home of the wealthy Reed family. A young girl, Jane Eyre sits in the drawing room reading Bewick’s History of British Birds. Janes aunt, Mrs Reed, has forbidden her niece to play with her cousins Eliza, Georgiana, and the bullying John. John Reed goes looking for Jane and finds her sitting at the window seat. He sits himself in an armchair and gestures for Jane to come and stand before him. He starts chiding Jane for being a lowly orphan who is only permitted to live with the Reeds because of his mothers charity. After asking Jane what she was doing and reminding her that she is not allowed to read his books, he hurls a book at Jane, pushing her to the end of her patience. “…Not at first aware what was his intention; but when I saw him lift and poise the book and stand in act to hurl it, I instinctively started aside with a cry of alarm not soon enough, however; the volume was flung, it hit me, and I fell, striking my head against the door and cutting it. The cut bled, the pain was sharp my terror had passed its climax; other feelings succeeded. Wicked and cruel boy! I said. You are like a murderer--you are like a slave-driver--you are like the Roman emperors! (C. Bront�, Jane Eyre, Hertforshire Wordsworth Editions Limited, 1, p5-6).


Jane erupts and the two cousins fight, “He ran headlong at me I felt him grasp my hair and my shoulder he had closed with a desperate thing. I really saw in him a tyrant, a murderer. I felt a drop or two of blood from my head trickle down my neck, and was sensible of somewhat pungent suffering these sensations for the time predominated over fear, and I received him in frantic sort. I dont very well know what I did with my hands, but he called me Rat! Rat! and bellowed out aloud” (Bront�, p5). Mrs. Reed holds Jane responsible for the scuffle and sends her to the red-room - the frightening chamber in which her Uncle Reed died, as punishment.


From chapter one, the reader can see how Bront� establishes Janes character through her confrontations with John and Mrs. Reed, in which Janes good-hearted but strong-willed determination and integrity become apparent. This chapter along with chapter two also establishes the novels mood. Beginning with Janes experience in the red-room in chapter two, the reader senses a palpable atmosphere of mystery and the supernatural. Like Emily Bront�s Wuthering Heights, Jane Eyre draws a great deal of its stylistic inspiration from the Gothic novels that were in vogue during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. These books depicted remote, desolate landscapes, crumbling ruins, and supernatural events, all of which were designed to create a sense of psychological suspense and horror. While Jane Eyre is certainly not a horror novel, its intellectually ambitious criticisms of society make it far more than a typical Gothic romance, it is Bront�s employment of Gothic conventions that gives her novel popular as well as intellectual appeal.


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From the beginning, Jane Eyre explores and challenges the social preconceptions of nineteenth-century Victorian society. Themes of social class, gender relations, and injustice predominate throughout. Jane Eyre begins her story as an orphan raised by a wealthy and cultivated family, and this ambiguous social standing motivates much of the novels internal tension and conflict. Janes education and semi-aristocratic lifestyle are those of the upper class, but she has no money. As a penniless orphan forced to live on the charity of others, Jane is a kind of second-class citizen. In some ways she is below even the servants, who certainly have no obligation to treat her respectfully. The tensions of this contradiction emerge in the very first chapter of the novel, when Jane suffers teasing and punishment at the hands of John Reed and his hateful mother. Janes banishment to the red-room exemplifies her inferior position with regard to the rest of the members of the Reed household.


The red-room is the first in a series of literal and metaphorical imprisonments in the novel. Although Janes imprisonment in the red-room is real, she will encounter spiritual, intellectual, and emotional imprisonment throughout the book. Chapter one suggests that the rigid Victorian hierarchies of social class and gender will pose challenges to her freedom of movement and personal growth, and corrupt morals and religion will also constitute menaces to her ability to realise her dreams for herself. Jane will even come to fear ‘enslavement’ to her own passions. At the same time, the red-room is also symbolic of Janes feeling of isolation with respect to every community she is ‘locked in’, but she is also, in a sense, ‘locked out’. Again, class and gender hierarchies will contribute to Janes sense of exile. For example, her position as a governess at Thornfield once again situates her in a strange borderland between the upper class and the servant class, so that she feels part of neither group.


Throughout the novel, Jane struggles continually to achieve equality and to overcome oppression. In addition to class hierarchy, she must fight against patriarchal domination, against those who believe women to be inferior to men and try to treat them as such. This issue is clearly signalled in chapter one when John Reed says, You have no business to take our books; you are a dependent, mama says; you have no money; your father left you none; you ought to beg, and not to live here with gentlemens children like us, and eat the same meals we do, and wear clothes at our mamas expense. Now, Ill teach you to rummage my bookshelves for they ARE mine; all the house belongs to me, or will do in a few years. Go and stand by the door, out of the way of the mirror and the windows” (Bront�, p5).


Images of ice and cold are also signalled at the novel’s outset. These images often appear in association with barren landscapes or seascapes, and they symbolise emotional desolation, loneliness, or even death. …The solitary rocks and promontories; the vast sweep of the Arctic Zone, and those forlorn regions of dreary space, that reservoir of frost and snow, where firm fields of ice, the accumulation of centuries of winters, glazed in Alpine heights above heights, surround the pole, and concentre the multiplied rigours of extreme cold; “Of these death-white realms” (Bront�, p). The description of the arctic that Bewick describes in his History of British Birds parallel Janes physical and spiritual isolation at Gateshead, “I formed an idea of my own shadowy, like all the half-comprehended notions that float dim through childrens brains, but strangely impressive. The words in these introductory pages connected themselves with the succeeding vignettes, and gave significance to the rock standing up alone in a sea of billow and spray; to the broken boat stranded on a desolate coast; to the cold and ghastly moon glancing through bars of cloud at a wreck just sinking” (Bront�, p).


Although only explained in chapter two, the red room is what ends chapter one, Take her away to the red-room, and lock her in there. Four hands were immediately laid upon me, and I was borne upstairs” (Bront�, p6). From the end of the chapter one, it is suggested that the red-room is viewed as a symbol of what Jane must overcome in her struggles to find freedom, happiness, and a sense of belonging. In the red-room, Janes position of exile and imprisonment first becomes clear. Although Jane is eventually freed from the room, she continues to be socially ostracised, financially trapped, and excluded from love; her sense of independence and her freedom of self-expression are constantly threatened.


The red-rooms importance as a symbol continues throughout the novel. It reappears as a memory whenever Jane makes a connection between her current situation and that first feeling of being ridiculed. Thus she recalls the room when she is humiliated at Lowood. She also thinks of the room on the night that she decides to leave Thornfield after Rochester has tried to convince her to become an undignified mistress. Her destitute condition upon her departure from Thornfield also threatens emotional and intellectual imprisonment, as does St. John’s marriage proposal. Only after Jane has asserted herself, gained financial independence, and found a spiritual family, which turns out to be her real family, can she wed Rochester and find freedom in and through marriage.


The development of Jane Eyre’s character is central to the novel and this is seen from chapter one. Jane possesses a sense of her self-worth and dignity, a commitment to justice and principle, a trust in God, and a passionate disposition. From a young girl, as I have shown in chapter one, she is forced to contend with oppression, inequality, and hardship. Although she meets with a series of individuals who threaten her autonomy, Jane repeatedly succeeds at asserting herself and maintains her principles of justice, human dignity, and morality.


Bibliography


1. Bront�, C. Jane Eyre. Hertfordshire Wordsworth Editions Limited, 1.


. Campbell, S. Charlotte Bront� Jane Eyre. London Penguin Books, 188.


. Gregor, I. The Bront�’s A Collection of Critical Essays. New Jersey Prentice-Hall, Inc, Englewood Cliffs, 170.


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Friday, July 22, 2011

globalisation and effect of fdi to host countries

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What is globalisation? Defined in ordinary language it means the deregulation of financial markets, the privatising of government enterprises, and the dismantling of barriers to the free movement of goods and services between countries.


For the first time in history almost the entire world population lives in a global capitalist system with the aim of free movement of goods and services. The drive for globalisation is economic growth and prosperity, especially for poorer nations whose economies have often been the most restrictive in the past.


The problem is the irrational nature of the global market, coupled with the extreme vulnerability of the poorest and most marginalised in emerging economies to sudden changes in exchange, interest rates, or big investment decisions. Globalisation therefore can sometimes be destabilising.


According to one school of thought FDI is a double edge weapon which cuts both ways. This notion has been proved by a study wherein it is pointed out that those who run the global economy do not know what they are doing as the belief in regard to lifting controls on the movement of capital would rejuvenate economies, maximise the efficiency of capital utilisation and prevent capital flight has been lost during the last few years.


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It is also believed that what is against the concept of short-term capital flows which lead to destabilisation effect to weak nations is also true in case of FDI. If FDI flows are not properly managed then they could destabilise weak host nation.


Through their choice of polices, governments of countries that are the hosts to FDI can both encourage and restrict FDI. Host governments can encourage FDI by providing incentives for foreign firms to invest in their economies, and they can restrict FDI through a variety of laws and policies.


The Benefits of FDI to Host Countries


There are three main benefits of foreign direct investment for a host country-


• The resources-transfer effects-FDI can make a positive contribution to a host economy by supplying capital, technology, and management resources that would other be not available.


• Employment effects-FDI brings jobs to a host country that would otherwise not be created there. Employment effects are both direct and indirect. Direct effects arise when a foreign MNE directly employs a number of host-country citizens. Indirect effects arise when jobs are created in local suppliers as a result of the investment and when jobs are created because of the increased spending in the local economy resulting from employees of the MNE.


• Balance of payments effects-FDI’s effect on a country’s balance of payments account is an important policy issue for most host governments. There are three potential consequences of FDI.


1. The capital account of the host country benefits from the initial investment.


. If the FDI is a substitute for imports of goods or services, the effect can be to improve the current account of the host country’s balance of payments.


. When the MNE uses a foreign subsidiary to export goods and services to other countries


The Costs of FDI to Host Countries


There are four main costs of foreign direct investment for a host country-


• Possible adverse effects on competition within the host nation-host governments worry that the subsidiaries of foreign MNEs operating in their country may have greater economic power than indigenous competitors, which could drive indigenous companies out of business and allow the firm to monopolize the market. There is also the infant industry argument mentioned previously.


• Adverse effects on the balance of payments-two main areas of concern. First, set against the initial capital inflow that comes with FDI must be the subsequent outflow of earnings from the foreign subsidiary to its parent company. Such outflows show as a debit on the capital account. Second, concern arises when a foreign subsidiary imports a substantial number of its inputs from abroad-which result in a debit on the current account of the host country’s balance of payments.


• Perceived loss of national sovereignty and autonomy-governments worry that key decisions that can affect their economy will be made by a foreign parent that has no real commitment to the host country, and over which the host country’s government has no real control.


• Cultural Impact-while foreign investment raises the local standard of living and introduce new products and services previously unavailable locally, people in the host cultures develop new norms, standards, and behaviours, some of which may not be beneficial.





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Thursday, July 21, 2011

Frankenstein

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Frankenstein, by Mary Shelley is a complex novel that was written during the age of Romanticism. It contains many typical themes of a common Romantic novel such as dark laboratories, the moon, and a monster; however, Frankenstein is anything but a common novel. Many lessons are embedded into this novel, including how society acts towards the different. The monster fell victim to the system commonly used to characterize a person by only his or her outer appearance. Whether people like it or not, society always summarizes a persons characteristics by his or her physical appearance. Society has set an unbreakable code individuals must follow to be accepted. Those who dont follow the standard are hated by the crowd and banned for the reason of being different. When the monster ventured into a town...[monster] had hardly placed [his] foot within the door ...children shrieked, and ...women fainted (101). From that moment on he realized that people did not like his appearance and hated him because of it. If villagers didnt run away at the sight of him, then they might have even enjoyed his personality. The monster tried to accomplish this when he encountered the De Lacey family. The monster hoped to gain friendship from the old man and eventually his children. He knew that it could have been possible because the old man was blind, he could not see the monsters repulsive characteristics. But fate was against him and the wretched had barely conversed with the old man before his children returned from their journey and saw a monstrous creature at the foot of their father attempting to do harm to the helpless elder. Felix darted forward, and with supernatural force tore [the creature] from his father... (1). Felixs action caused great inner pain to the monster. He knew that his dream of living with them happily ever after would not happen. After that bitter moment the monster believed that ...the human senses are insurmountable barriers to our union [with the monster] (18) and with the De Lacey encounter still fresh in his mind along with his first encounter of humans, he declared war on the human race. The wicked beings source of hatred toward humans originates from his first experiences with humans. In a way the monster started out with a child-like innocence that was eventually shattered by being constantly rejected by society time after time. His first encounter with humans was when he opened his yellow eyes for the first time and witnessed Victor Frankenstein, his creator, ...rush out of the [laboratory]... (56). Would this have had happened if society did not consider physical appearance to be important? No. If physical appearance were not important then the creature would have had a chance of being accepted into the community with love and care. But society does believe that physical appearance is important and it does influence the way people act towards each other. Frankenstein should have made him less offending if even he, the creator, could not stand his disgusting appearance. There was a moment however when Frankenstein ...was moved... (1) by the creature. He ...felt what the duties of a creator... (7) were and decided that he had to make another creature, a companion for the original. But haunting images of his creation (from the monsters first moment of life) gave him an instinctive feeling that the monster would do menacing acts with his companion, wreaking twice the havoc! Reoccurring images of painful events originating from a first encounter could fill a person with hate and destruction. We as a society are the ones responsible for the transformation of the once child-like creature into the monster we all know. The public needs to know that our society has flaws and they must be removed before our primal instincts continue to isolate and hurt the people who are different. With such a large amount of technology among us, some people may wonder why such an advanced civilization still clings on to such primitive ways of categorizing people.





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Sunday, July 17, 2011

Informal Organisation

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INFORMAL ORGANISATION


Beyond, however, from the official form of organisation, probably exist persons and teams without no competence and place in the jerarhjki scale, in the obvious structure and the Flow chart of enterprise. The constitution and the existence of these informal factors are owed in reasons independent from the formal organisation, that however him influences or is influenced by this, immediately or indirectly and creates a other at the same time existing to the formal, informal organisation in in the enterprise.


That is created however the informal organisation? From daily social (friendly) contact of executives of enterprise is shaped her own network of relations that in the substance constitute, consciously or unprincipledly, relations of power. In the informal organisation do not exist clarified objectives and neither some drawing of configuration of relations of power. The informal organisation is shaped through the daily communication between the individuals, that it is natural to exist when they are activated in the same space .


Fundamental cause of informal organisation is the need belongs no one in some team that will satisfy his needs .


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INFORMAL TEAMS


the informal teams are result of directness, personality, and needs of individuals. The employees are connected between them because they work in the same space (directness), they have same interesting except work (hobby, social activities, attendance in religious teams, children that go to the same school, etc) or because they have the need or the wish to work with friends. These teams have not been programmed or have been fixed by the organism, but, on the contrary, are created spontaneously. Their aim is to give satisfaction and simultaneously in their members .


In social (informal) team the gradation is determined by the feelings, or the perceptions which they have between them the members of team. Thus, is strong a member he is elected in leader, because he enjoys bigger popularity, the bigger respect, or most sympathies .


administration of enterprise, is not always in place it knows all the informal teams that function in in the gulves of formal organisation, because the big crowd of informal relations that is developed between the members of personnel. It is nevertheless deliberate, for the reasons that we exposed more, the pointing out of those teams what they play being first role from opinion of influence and influence on the workers, in order to it can him use for completion and aid of formal organisation .


- Teams of common interests they are informal teams that are not created by the organism but by individuals that him connect common interesting in in the working place their. A team of interests can have big importance for the company, because it can constitute a linked forehead adversely in the administration in a important subject that concerns her members. For example, certain workers of different departments of factory can create a committee of safety that seeks better conditions of work from the administration. This committee is considered team common interesting because it has not been fixed by the organism, on the contrary, she is constituted by workers that are linked for the promotion of question of common interest. These workers can be members of different functional teams and teams of work. However, the team of interests resembles with the team of work in that they are also two limited duration the team is dissolved formally when the object of interest is satisfied. These teams have the smaller duration of life comparatively with the other types of teams, but a team of interests are replaced fast by certain other. Certain teams, however, can have continuous duration (eg a committee of safety).


- Synadelfjkes teams Contrary to the team of interests which exists in in the working place, the synadelfjki team develops activities mainly except the labour space. It is constituted by individuals that are connected between them with base some common characteristic as a religious organisation (church or synagogue), some common interest (eg attendance in common, athletic clubs, or hobby), the political parties, or anything other that brings near the persons except work. Consequence of common interest is that the individuals they are related between them and in in the frames of organism. At the duration of breaks of work, these individuals can synantoyntaj and speak for the object of their interest, that can be from the last model of personal computer up to the developments in the championship of football. The common interests connect individuals that belong in any sector of organism.


It is important for the administrations of enterprises they comprehend that the attendance of workers in synadelfjkes teams is not something that it can check-how much rather prohibit - the organism, even if these teams function usually at the weekday hours in in the labour spaces. Best in that it can hope the organism is the restriction of available time for social synanastrofi at the duration of weekday day, drawing with attention the provision of work and determining certain concrete periods for the social synanastrofes (for example, breaks for coffee).





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Patterns in Medicinal Advertising

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One of the most innovative trends in print advertising is medicine advertisement. The content of these particular advertisements (ads) are intriguing to me. I intend to analyze five medicinal ads to find the tools used by advertisers and to explore the positive and negative aspects of advertising medicine through print ads for the public.


The people who develop ads to market prescription medicine products must have an inkling of what the reader wants to see. For instance, the ads in a parenting magazine most often target mothers. The ads in a sports magazine predominately target athletes. How do the advertisers know what the reader will respond to?


Patterns are tools that help us to narrow our thinking down and put thoughts into categories that we identify with. Patterns allow us to store information in blocks so that we do not have to relearn information that has already been learned. Some patterns are universal and most people have some categories or patterns that other people have. An example of a universal human pattern is using language to communicate. Other patterns that we have, may be derived from our own experience and unlike those of others. Patterns are useful in advertising because advertisers can target their reader by tapping into specific categories.


Perception is a persons understanding of the information they receive. Depending on their experience or their understanding they will categorize their perception and in turn it will become a thought pattern. For instance when a person talks to a priest their perception of him may be that he is perfect or does not sin. They may categorize all priests this way and not judge them in the way that they would any person who is not a priest. I feel that patterns and perception work hand in hand. Sometimes patterns are formed based on perception, sometimes perception is based on a pattern. What came first the chicken or the egg? Im not quite sure, but I do know they affect each other. Ads are designed by using patterns that target a specific audience. The readers perception of the product may form exclusively based on the ad.


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The patterns that I noticed specifically amongst the five medicine ads that Ive chosen to analyze is the break through effect. In one ad there was a woman with her child and they were breaking through glass. Another ad featured a woman and her child with clear blue skies breaking through the clouds above. The third ad has a man skiing through a mountain of wild flowers.


The thought of breaking through something with a smile is somewhat encouraging and enticing. Thus a reader might perceive this medicine as exciting so they may ask their doctor for this kind rather than another kind that has been useful to them in the past. The thought of carelessly skiing over wildflowers is also exciting and visually euphoric.


The coloring used in the ads is captivating. One ad has a sunset with the colors creating a relaxed feeling. Brown is seems to set a pattern as an offset color in four of the five ads. Sky blue is also used, it looks uplifting and freeing.


Another pattern that I noticed is the use of perfect children in the ads. These children do not have a hair out of place or a speck of dirt on their clothing. Both the mothers and the children in the ads are smiling and seemingly relaxed. In other words a persons perception of the product could be that taking this medicine would create clean, relaxing family harmony. The ads also suggest calling a toll free number to receive a coupon or rebate


check upon purchase of their product. This is a wonderful way to get the readers attention, as most people respond to price reductions whether they know the product or not.


There is also a pattern of listing how many times a day the medicine needs to be administered. These ads make reference to the difference in dosage between other medicines as compared to theirs. They focus on the convenience of taking the medicine.


All five of my ads list the possible side effects and teratogens as well as harmful drug interactions on the backside of the ad in fine print. This information definitely does not grab the readers attention as the picture on the front does. The advertisers most likely assume that the picture alone will sell their product. Some of the ads do list possible side effects on the front of the ad in small print as well.


It is clear to me that the advertisers have a perception of how the patterns will influence the reader. The readers perception of the medicine is based purely on what the eye can see. They cant feel, taste, smell or sample the medicine from looking at an advertisement. Therefore their perception of the ad has absolutely nothing to do with the actual product and its effectiveness or ineffectiveness.


Prescription medicine is not something that should be chosen spontaneously or without researching the product. Often times the medicine can be prescribed by a doctor based solely on the patients request. The patient most likely does not know enough about the medicine if they are requesting it based on the advertisement.


It is unfortunate that advertisers go to such lengths to sell products. It is equally unfortunate that people respond to the advertisements based on a picture or a feeling that they get because of the presentation. The reason that I feel that its unfortunate is because prescription drugs can be very harmful if not taken seriously and with caution. If a product cannot be sold in a store, by mail, or in a catalog without a doctors prescription does it


belong as an advertisement in a magazine? I assume this is a somewhat controversial issue between pharmaceutical companies and doctors who are uncomfortable with overexposing medicines by using catch phrases or visual stimulus. It undermines the importance of a doctors role in diagnosing and treating individuals.


The positive aspects of advertising medicine in magazines are beneficial to the pharmaceutical companies especially. They create allure to their product by using patterns to interest the reader and therefore the reader is more likely to request their medicine as a result. This benefits the sales and notoriety of the product. The one positive way that this form of advertising can benefit the reader is if they have an existing problem and they dont know theres a treatment for it. It could open a door for the reader to contact their doctor about it.


It is apparent to me that the advertisers use many patterns based on their perception and what they assume will be the perception of the reader. The advertisers must have enough information on what specific patterns the reader will respond to because they do a good job of capturing the readers attention. Despite my opposition of advertising medicine this way, it is interesting to have discovered the tools used in doing so.





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Saturday, July 16, 2011

Brett Farve

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Brett Farve


Where would football be without quarterbacks like Brett Farve? Brett Farve has led a great career with several highlights and has revolutionized the way quarterbacks play in the present day National Football League. Coach Mike Holmgreen, Green Bay Packers head coach, stated, “Brett is the key to our offense (Goodman 8).” Although Farve has set many records including earning a Superbowl ring, he still has several years left in his National Football Career.


Brett Farve was born in Gulfport, Mississippi on October 10, 16 (Gutman 6). Irvin Farve, Brett’s father, was a high school football coach at Brett’s future high school, Hancock North Central High School. Brett was one of Bonita and Irvin Farve’s four children (Gutman 7). Bonita Farve was a special ED at one of the Hancock North Central High School (Gutman 7). Brett was the middle of his other two brothers, Scott and Jeff. He also had a younger sister named Brandi (Gutman). The three boys were usually into something. If they were not fishing for crawfish they were climbing trees and shooting BB guns (Gutman 6). Like most kids, Brett was always playing sports. Brett always had a strong arm and obviously got his athletic ability from both of his parents and he would later use that athletic talent to pursue his football career.


Throughout Brett’s somewhat older years he began to find extreme interest in football and baseball (Gutman8). Almost all children have role models or idols that they dream of becoming. For Brett he looked up to two famous football players, Archie Manning of the New Orleans Saints and Roger Staughbach of the Dallas Cowboys (Gutman 8). Roger Staughbach and Archie Manning were both members of the National Football League Hall of Fame. One of the several reasons why Brett is successful at everything he does is due to dedication. In fact Brett never missed one day of school from the third grade all the way through his senior year in high school. Due to his perfect attendance, Brett was always achieved excellent grades. He showed amazing athletic ability even when he was young. In fact, when Brett was in the eighth grade he was the starting quarterback for the Hancock North Central High School Varsity baseball team. That first year Brett led the team with a .5 batting average and would lead the team for the next four more years (Gutman 7,8,). Obviously this young athlete had natural talent.


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In order for Brett to excel at the level he is now playing, he had to have played well during all of his previous athletic endeavors prior to his National Football League debut. Brett, like most other students in Gulfport, Mississippi, attended Hancock North Central High School (Gutman). At Hancock Brett was a five-year starter on the Varsity baseball team (Gutman). Brett was most definitely maximizing his athletic ability. As a sophomore Brett was finally prepared to take over the starting quarterback when unfortunately he came down with Mononucleosis (Gutman8). In 185, Brett’s junior year, he began his first ever varsity football game as quarterback (Gutman 8). During this year, Brett’s team went six and four. As a new quarterback, Brett performed extremely well (Gutman ). During Brett’s senior year he led the Hancock Hawks to an eight and two season. During this year he also threw only ninety-seven times, completing forty passes, for seven hundred twenty-three yards and eight touchdowns (Gutman ). With these statistics recruiters were definitely not pursuing him as a candidate for college. In 186 during the eighth game of his senior year, a recruiter from Southern Mississippi University attended his game. Brett threw the ball only four times, which obviously was not enough to impress recruiters (Gutman ). The coach from southern Mississippi University signed Brett as a recruit because he was impressed with his pregame warm-up (Gutman 10). Brett would now become a Golden Eagle!


During training camp in the summer of 186, Brett worked both offense and defense and was seventh on the depth chart for quarterbacks (Gutman 18). After coaches saw Brett on the practice field they knew they had chosen the right quarterback (Gutman 18). He was immediately moved to the third spot on the depth chart and by the start of his freshman season in 187 he had moved to the second spot. Farve stated for the Golden Eagles during the third game of his freshman season and would start all the way through his graduation (BC #1). During these four seasons Brett led his team to twenty-nine victories in which he threw for 8,1 passing yard, 1,4 passing attempts, 656 completions and 55 touchdown passes. Farve was among the top thirty NCAA passers in NCAA history. To top off his collegiate career he was the MVP of the East-West Shrine game featuring the nations’ top athletes (BC #1). This was the beginning of greatness for Brett Farve.


Although Brett was quite successful in high school and college, his real success came in the National Football League. Brett was chose in the second round of the 10 National Football League draft (Gutman 51). During Brett’s first NFL season on the Falcons, he hardly ever saw the playing field (Gutman 54). In 1 Green Bay Packers’ General Manager, Ron Wolf, traded Brett Farve for the Packers first round draft pick the year prior. Brett would now have to back up0 the former Pro-Bowler, Ron Majkowski. In game three of that season Brett would play due to an injury of Majkowski’s ankle (BC #1). During this season Brett led the Packers to an eight and five record and threw for two hundred eight yards in eleven consecutive games. In 1 Brett started all sixteen games. During this season Farve threw for ,0 yards and led the Packers to the second round of the playoffs. In 14 Brett also had another successful season leading his team to the playoffs and threw for ,88 yards. Although Brett was rising as a leader and an outstanding quarterback, he would really excel in the 15, 16, 17 seasons.


Brett Farve was now six feet two inches tall and weighed 5 pounds (BC #). During the 15 season Brett once again led his team to the playoffs. Farve was also named the Quarterback of the Year for throwing for 4,41 yards, which was a National Football League best. Farve also threw for at least one touchdown in seven consecutive games. During this season Brett was named the Most Valuable Player of the NFL and was as well named as the Offensive Player of the Year. In 16, Brett was named as the quarterback of the Pro Bowl for the second straight year. Farve was the third all time touchdown leader in 16 behind Dan Marino’s two records. Farve once again led his team to the playoffs but against the New England Patriots. The Packers won 5-1 in a triumphant victory. Because of Brett Farve’s performance, he was again awarded the title of Most Valuable Player of the NFL for the second straight year. In 17 Brett and the Packers again went to the Super Bowl but fell short in a devastating loss. Due to Brett’s performance in the 17 season he was again awarded MVP for the third consecutive time. This astonishing achievement set a record that had never been awarded in the history of the National Football League before (BC# 1/5,6,7,8,). Brett Farve is one of the winningest quarterbacks in the NFL and will most likely find himself in the National Football League Hall of Fame!





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natures duality

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Have you ever ridden in a car? Well a car has the ability to really help you out by transportation but it also can cause major harm. Like in the book A Place Where The Sea Remembers the author Sandra Benitez illustrates the aspects of negative and positive objects. This novel was taken place on the coast of Mexico in a town called Santiago. It is a story of many characters all dealing with problems in there everyday life. In the novel the actions of the arroyo, the sea and babies become both helpful and harmful.


The arroyo has the ability to help and harm. An arroyo is a deep gully cut by an intermittent stream that leads to the ocean. “In the dry season the arroyo was used as a road, and now Chayo strode up it on her way back from the beach” (Benitez 6). In this text the author is showing how the arroyo is helpful. And how the arroyo is a positive effect on society. “Up and down its length the arroyo was a mud hole. A stench came from it that, when the wind was right, made living here difficult” (Benitez 14). Now the wet season is coming and the arroyo is changing from a dried out passage way to an inconvenient mud hole. Not only that the arroyo is inconvenient it is also a discomfort from the smell. “The rumble she was hearing was not the storm but the arroyo. A froth of brown water churned down the riverbed, the water so high she could see it from the door” (Benitez 158). Here in the novel there is a big storm and the arroyo is


in retrospect, the chief out come of this paper has signified





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Friday, July 15, 2011

how the world has changed from 1500 to 1900

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Throughout the years from 1500 to the early twentieth century the world saw many examples of European expansion. Many European countries shared the same motives for expansion while others were interested in it for different reasons. The main motive for expansion shared by most European countries was economic prosperity.


Great Britain, the Netherlands and Spain were the main leaders in the expansion of European trade. Each country was able to establish itself as a power in the world trade market for different reasons. Spain’s main motive for expansion initially was to increase its influence throughout the world, which they inherently succeeded in by their conquests in the Americas. They came to the Americas for both economic and “religious” reasons but mainly for the large amounts of natural resources and the large amounts of silver and gold. When the Spanish established themselves as the leaders of the gold and silver trade, their influence in trade increased.


Great Britain and the Netherlands were more interested in expanding their trade opportunities as well as the goods they traded with. One of the main goods that Great Britain and the Netherlands were interested in was spices. During the 1700’s the British began to set up colonies in India and other parts of Asia and the Netherlands colonized many islands in the West Indies. These areas were hot spots for the spice trade in addition to other goods like silk and herbal teas which were much desired by many Europeans.


Once these countries established themselves economically, they developed patterns of trade that were mutually beneficial. For example the Spanish used the gold and silver they got from South America and traded it for manufactured goods from well established industrial countries like Great Britain, the Netherlands and France. This pattern benefited the Spanish in that they were able to easily receive manufactured goods without having to compete in the industrial race that swept across Europe during the 1800’s and it benefited the British, Dutch and French in that they were able to receive large amounts of gold and silver in exchange for manufactured goods that were relatively inexpensive to produce; hence, the mutually beneficial trade patterns that enabled European powers like Great Britain, the Netherlands and Spain to emerge as leaders of world trade and advance themselves economically.


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Another motive for expansion for countries like Spain, Portugal and France was to spread Catholicism. Portugal was one of the first countries to spread Catholicism. In the 1400’s, under the leadership of Prince Henry the Navigator, Portugese explorers began to look for a new Christian kingdom that could be an ally against the Muslims. These Portugese explorers made their way south along the west coast of Africa; but, rather than succeeding in expanding Catholicism they discovered new trade opportunities. The slave trade is one example of this.


Through the establishment of colonies, countries like Spain and France were able to succeed, to a degree, in the expansion of Catholicism. However, this motive was clouded in many colonies by the obsession for economic advancement by the colonial powers.


During the 1700’s and 1800’s many European countries began to setup colonies in Africa, Asia, the Americas as well as the West Indies. This shifted the motive for European expansion to be virtually completely based on economic advancement. With the establishment of Europe as the source of economic and military power, many Europeans began to feel that they were superior to other people throughout the world. This belief was reflected through literature like “The White Man’s Burden” among other writings. As a result, many countries tried to justify colonialism by saying that they were attempting to civilize or “Europeanize” the natives in their colonial countries. However, most colonial governments were extremely oppressive in issues of human rights as well as politically. In many of the colonies, there were revolts against the government. Some were peaceful and others involved violence.


At the beginning of the sixteenth century, European expansion was supported by many different motives like economic prosperity, expansion of trade and the spread Christianity. However, by the end of the nineteenth century the sole motive was economic prosperity. This became the focus of virtually all European countries at the end of the eighteenth and throughout the nineteenth centuries with the industrial revolution.


There was a tremendous movement in the 1800’s in Europe that revolved around the manufacturing and exporting of goods from textiles to clothes made in large factories by usually underpaid, overworked laborers. As a result of the industrial revolution, European countries sought to expand their empires and colonize areas of Africa, Asia and the Americas that were rich in natural resources and raw materials. As a result this would boost their profits and give them much easier and cheaper access to the materials they needed to manufacture goods.





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superman

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thsntht Bb


Jilliann that one is a little more complex


thsntht c&c appreciated


thsntht choose


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Jilliann what?


thsntht oh a misspelling i just saw


Jilliann at some places it turns too quickly


thsntht still needs edit


Jilliann I love some of the descriptors


Jilliann very sensory )


tjaden sounds of a clarinet flowing through silk impregnated with opiates


tjaden one of the best lines ive ever heard


Jilliann me too


thsntht thanks )


thsntht Bb


Jilliann that one is a little more complex


thsntht c&c appreciated


thsntht choose


Jilliann what?


thsntht oh a misspelling i just saw


Jilliann at some places it turns too quickly


thsntht still needs edit


Jilliann I love some of the descriptors


Jilliann very sensory )


tjaden sounds of a clarinet flowing through silk impregnated with opiates


tjaden one of the best lines ive ever heard


Jilliann me too


thsntht thanks )


la-de-bg has joined #Poetry


Melody` It is great to write about the sensation of smell. It is done too rarely. If you edit this, I advise you to leave the last two lines as they are.


thsntht but it needs edit


thsntht thanks all


thsntht hi la-de


la-de-bg hi thsntht )


Jilliann it was great seeing you all raw and exposed though. thank you.


la-de-bg hello everyone )


Melody` Hello la-de-bg


frostbite has joined #Poetry


pistashio has joined #Poetry


thsntht tj that is my favorite line too....i liked how it felt when i wrote it....if i should scrap this poem i will keep that line


tjaden yeah, im sorry i didnt write it(


pistashio evening poeteers


Jilliann hi pistashio


la-de-bg hi pistashio )


pistashio hi hello


pistashio ) are we reading onight?


thsntht ive read a few...time for someone else


Jilliann ths just got done. it was a good one too


pistashio oh well


la-de-bg hmmmmm i shoulda been here earlier /


Melody` Here is a poem


pistashio tomorrow is a new day 7


la-de-bg has joined #Poetry


Melody` It is great to write about the sensation of smell. It is done too rarely. If you edit this, I advise you to leave the last two lines as they are.


thsntht but it needs edit


thsntht thanks all


thsntht hi la-de


la-de-bg hi thsntht )


Jilliann it was great seeing you all raw and exposed though. thank you.


la-de-bg hello everyone )


Melody` Hello la-de-bg


frostbite has joined #Poetry


pistashio has joined #Poetry


thsntht tj that is my favorite line too....i liked how it felt when i wrote it....if i should scrap this poem i will keep that line


tjaden yeah, im sorry i didnt write it(


pistashio evening poeteers


Jilliann hi pistashio


la-de-bg hi pistashio )


pistashio hi hello


pistashio ) are we reading onight?


thsntht ive read a few...time for someone else


Jilliann ths just got done. it was a good one too


pistashio oh well


la-de-bg hmmmmm i shoulda been here earlier /


Melody` Here is a poem


pistashio tomorrow is a new day 7


Please note that this sample paper on superman is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on superman, we are here to assist you. Your persuasive essay on superman will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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Thursday, July 14, 2011

Explore the presentation of illusion and reality in ‘A streetcar named Desire’ and ‘The Glass Menagerie’

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Reality and illusion are two powerful fundamental concepts that have been explored by Tennessee Williams as a playwright in “A Streetcar Named Desire” and “The Glass Menagerie”. Reality is reference to the truth and actuality and an acceptance of it, which is juxtaposed by illusion, which comprises deception, imagination, fantasy and may be a distortion of the truth. T.S Elliot suggests that reality is much more than the sum of our physical sensation. Williams utilises several dramatic techniques to convey these paradoxical themes, which involve characterisation, language, and symbolism, which includes, light, music, objects, sound and setting. Through the adoption of such devices Williams as a playwright has effectively depicted the clash between reality and illusion.


The themes of reality and illusion reflect Williams’ personal life although “The Glass Menagerie” consists of greater autobiographical relevance that expresses the playwright’s childhood relationships with his sister Rose. The collection of glass animals is a good measure of symbolism among Williams’ possessions as he describes them as,





“… those little glass animals came to represent in my memory all the softest emotions that belong to the recollection of things past. They stood for all the small and tender things that relieve the austere pattern of life and make it endurable to the sensitive.”


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The character of Rose appears to be reflected in the characters of Laura and Blanche. In real life, Rose, like Laura, took a course at secretarial school but ended up in the park, museum or zoo as opposed to a classroom. In the play Laura is physically defected but in actuality the situation was increasingly severe as Rose displayed signs of psychological disturbance, which deteriorated into a pathological withdrawal from reality so harsh that it led to a lobotomy. Williams felt what this operation did to Rose was destroy her imagination at the attempt to surgically retain her normality. Like Tom, in “The Glass Menagerie”, Williams had to frequently listen to his mother who also expressed a longing for the south and her youth, portraying reality and illusion. The character of Blanche also reflects Williams’ pattern of life as he himself also endured psychological destruction and turned to alcohol and drugs as a result. Williams experienced sexual encounters as Blanche does to escape from the harshness of reality.





Bibsby suggests that most of Williams’ characters are guilty of blinding themselves from the stark realties of their situation, and of indulging, “the desire to live with comforting fictions, rather than confront brutal truths, a doomed and ultimately deadly strategy” (Bigsby 17 pg 5.)


Blanche, a faded southern belle, is a fundamental character in “A Streetcar Named Desire” who exemplifies a clear relationship between illusion and reality as she serves as the ultimate embodiment of illusion and withdraws herself from ugly reality as a survival mechanism. She chooses to live in a fantasy “make believe” world that consists of rich admirers, such as Shep Huntleigh, and deceit and as a result she is completely saturated into her illusionary world to such an extent that Williams portrays her as schizophrenic. Blanche is unable to distinguish between reality and illusion and acknowledge that they are distinctive concepts, this is portrayed by Williams’ dialogue between Mitch and Blanche when Mitch has acknowledged the truth regarding Blanche’s past,


Mitch You lied to me, Blanche.


Blanche Don’t say I lied to you.





Mitch Lies, lies, inside and out, all lies


Blanche Never inside I didn’t lie in my heart’ (asnd) pg101


Blanches’s cravings for alcohol are implied as we learn about her guilt and lament towards her husband’s suicide and her promiscuity that she camouflages with her class-conscious aristocratic attitude. She relies on alcohol to provide reassurance and comfort to escape against the harshness of reality,


“She catches her breath with a startling gesture. Suddenly she notices something in a half opened closet. She springs up and crosses to it, and removes a whisky bottle. She pours a half a tumbler of whisky and tosses it down. She carefully replaces the bottle and washes out the tumbler at the sink. Then she resumes her seat in front of the table.” (Pg6)


Williams presents Mitch as the only sign of hope for Blanche’s illusions and desires, as she longs for a sense of security that Mitch is able to provide, but the truth leads to Mitch’s rejection of Blanche as he regards her with contempt and refers to her as ‘not clean enough to bring in the house with my mother.’ (page ref)


Blanche’s illusionary world destroys any future success that she could have obtained with Mitch, as the deceit and failure were inextricably linked.


Blanche is aware that something has ended in her life which leads to her psychological deterioration and it can only be recovered through the deceitful fictional roles Williams presents her as desperately performing but finally these fail to offer her immunity from reality


Williams portray Blanche as longing to remain in her illusory and fantasy world. One way in which this is depicted is thorough her terrified response towards aging signs,


BLANCHE …I mean I haven’t informed him - of my real age!


STELLA Because of hard knock my vanity has given.


What I mean � he thinks I’m sort of � prim


and proper, you know! (she laughs out sharply.) I


want to deceive him enough to make him � want


me… asnd � pg 6


Thus Williams presents Blanche as contemplating a deceiving act regarding her age in order to attract Mitch.


Williams acknowledges the impossibility of recovering the past that is stained by cruelty and corruption, however the future is worse for Blanche.


Williams effectively presents the themes of reality and illusion through the character of Amanda who is an anachronism in St Louis, in “The Glass menagerie” and desperately clings to the ideal girlhood of Blue Mountain thus seen as having parallels with the character of Blanche. A misfortunate middle age in St Louis reveals that she is absorbed by her past and adds a sense of nostalgia to the play as she makes frequent references to her past throughout the play and he retreats into the comfortable, secure world of her youth,


“One Sunday afternoon in Blue Mountain � your mother received � seventeen! � gentlemen callers! Why, sometimes there weren’t enough chairs to accommodate them all” (tgm pg 8)


Williams describes Amanda’s expectations, dreams and illusion of marrying a wealthy planter and living in a southern aristocratic society have been shattered and destroyed, but her reminiscences are a confusion of wish and reality as she is unwilling to change and obtains a distorted vision of her life.


Amanda’s language is excessive as she exaggerates her popularity and romanticises the past how she remembers it,


“…Well, in the south we had so many servants. Gone, gone, gone. All vestige of gracious living! Gone completely! I wasn’t prepared for what the future brought me. All of my gentleman callers were sons of planters and so of course I assumed and raise my family on a large piece of land with plenty of servants…” 64 tgm


However Williams there is an element of realism within her character, which portrays when she reveals concern for her children and longs for them to be successful and she wants Laura to train in new technology,


“No, I don’t have secrets. I’ll tell you what I wished for on the moon. Success and happiness for my precious children! I wish for that whenever there’s a moon and when there isn’t a moon, I wish for it too.” Pg 4 (tgm)


Williams conveys the fact that Amanda endeavours to make a compromise between illusion and reality because although she can never escape the reality of St.Loius she is the only person in the play who is both practical and determined, in her efforts to keep the Wingfield family together following her husband’s desertion. Williams presents Amanda as never totally escaping from the harsh present as she is trapped in a world of humiliation as she submits herself to the unpleasant task of selling magazines and work in a department store in order to maintain the household and pay for Laura’s abortive business college experience that she perceives and recognises as being valuable





“I put her in business college � a dismal failure! Frightened


her so it made her sick at the stomach. I took her over to the


young people’s league at the church. Another fiasco. She


spoke to nobody, nobody spoke to her. Now all she does is


fool with those pieces of glass and play with those worn out records.


What kind of life is that for a girl to lead? (pg 5 ) tgm


Williams portrays The Rubicam’s Business College as representing the everyday world, which Laura fails to enter.


Amanda feels she must make “plans and provision” (4) in preparation for a gentleman caller and constantly forces her son to work at a warehouse that he detests, she is the only person in the family who is capable of doing these things although it hurts her self-esteem and pride,


“…I know your ambitions don’t lie in the ware house, that like everyone in the whole world � you’ve had to make sacrifices, but �


There’s so many things in my heart that I can’t describe to


you!” ( tgm)


Ultimately Amanda does not retreat into her illusions, during a time of great stress, but is sustained in a world of cruel reality, comforting her daughter,


“[…Amanda’s gestures are slow and almost graceful, almost dancelike as she comforts her daughter. At the end of her speech she glances a moment at the father picture-then withdraws through the portieres…].”


[Pg 6.]


The setting and the clothing have important representations on a metaphorical level and highlight the concepts of illusion and reality. Amanda illustrates this to a large extent as she attempts to transform the environment in preparation for the gentleman caller to disguise the original appearance of the apartment, thus this highlights the distinction between appearance and reality as Amanda continues to create her illusions,


“ Thank heavens I’ve got that new sofa! I’m also making payments on a floor lamp I’ll have sent out! And put the chintz covers on, they’ll brighten things up! Of course I’d hoped to have these walls re papered…” 4


Amanda’s clothes are also significant to the notion of illusion and reality as she presents herself as outdated relic of her time of youth,


“I’ve resurrected from my old trunk! Styles haven’t changed so terrible mush after all…[she parts the portieres] Now just look at your mother! [She wears a girlish frock of yellowed voile with a blue silk slash. She carries a bunch of jonquils-the legend of her youth is nearly revived. Now she speaks feverishly]” 5


The jonquils and her yellow courting dress symbolise Amanda’s past as they are associated with the south and represent her vivacity and her life in the past and her part of her illusion.


Nevertheless Williams does convey the characters of Amanda and Blanche as displaying traditional, southern values but they themselves are faded belles of the south and their attitudes appear to be a superficial facades that evocatively provide reassurance to preserve reality.


BLANCHE I guess I do have � old fashioned ideals!


(She rolls her eyes knowing that he cannot see her face…)


Pg 7





Williams presents Laura in “The Glass Menagerie” as being the pathetic figure of the play and her strangeness and vulnerability are further presented as the accelerating factors of her separation from the real world. Laura exemplifies a withdrawal of reality and retreats to the corner of the stage as she huddles amidst the inanimate glass menagerie that indicates her movement away from real life when having to confront reality and the harshness of the situation. One occasion that can be recalled of Laura surrendering to her glass menagerie is when Tom and Amanda are arguing and the circumstances become too harsh for her to tolerate,


“LAURA [shrilly] My glass! � menagerie …[she covers her face and turns away.] 4


Laura’s glass menagerie is frozen and time is suspended, as it will continue to be suspended for Laura. Laura stands as a paradigm of the culture of which she is a part. The world of modernity that included the dance hall and the typewriter are out of her experience. Laura’s glass menagerie symbolises her own private world set apart from reality. The little glass animals suggest the beauty in fragility that must be protected from the harshness of reality. This is a dominant symbol in the play. Laura resembles the characteristics of her glass animals as Williams portrays them as being cold and lifeless in a sterile world.


Vulnerably, Laura chooses the world of a myth, symbolised by a glass unicorn. It is a security broken easily as the unicorns glass horn. Similarly the unicorn is also a mythological animal presented by Williams and does not exist in the real world because it is unique. When the horn is broken Laura is not too upset as Jim, the gentleman caller shelters her and her calmness symbolises her attempt to pit aside her fantasy world for reality,


“[They suddenly bump into the table an the glass piece on it falls to the floor. Jim stops the dance.]…


JIM You’ll never forgive me. I bet that was your favourite piece of glass.


LAURA I don’t have favourites much. It’s no tragedy, Freckles. Glass breaks so easily. No matter how careful you are. The traffic jars the shelves and the things fall off them.


JIM Still I’m awfully sorry that I was the cause.


LAURA I’ll just imagine he had an operation. The horn was removed to make him feel less-freakish!


However when she finds out that Jim is engaged, she gives him the unicorn as a souvenir, which symbolises her retreat into her own fragile world. Since the unicorn is no longer “special” it does not hold the special place among the animals as it previously did.


Williams presents Laura’s glass menagerie as corresponding to the remoteness of the fairground as they can be seen as performing circus animals providing a sense of escapism into a make believe world that is antithetical to reality. The glass menagerie represents Laura’s private illusionary world, set apart from reality where she can be safe and secure as she sees her surrender to the glass menagerie as a form of protection from the cruel outside world.


Williams presents the events that happen to the glass menagerie as affecting Laura’s emotional state greatly. Laura withdraws to the company of the glass menagerie when the outside world becomes too threatening. One incident when this is demonstrated is when Amanda advises Laura to practise typing but instead she plays with her glass.


“…She is washing and polishing her collection of glass. Amanda appears on the fire escape steps. At the sound of her ascent, Laura catches her breath, thrusts the bowl of ornaments away and seats herself stiffly before the diagram of the typewriter keyboard as…” pg 11 tgm……..


Blue Roses are identified with Laura, because like Laura they cannot live in the real world. The colour blue symbolises an unearthly quality for the playwright and provide a connection with his sister’s name, Rose. Overall Williams presents Amanda, Laura and Blanche as resisting the continuity of time. They remain static in their perspective on life as they long to maintain their youth, beauty and dreams.


Tom is the disillusioned narrator in “The Glass Menagerie” comprising a retrospective view of his life that relates to Williams presentation of reality and illusion as Tom is conveyed as a character who had longed to develop his illusions and dreams into reality. Williams depicts the play, through Tom’s perspective thus it is seen as regarded as a “memory play” which could be seen as an illusion in it self as it may be inaccurate in its portrayal. Williams states the atmospheric touches of this “memory play” and subtlety of direction are an important part in the reality of the story,


“The sense is memory and is therefore non realistic. Memory takes a lot of poetic license. It omits some details; other are exaggerated, to the emotional value of the articles it touches, for memory is seated predominantly in the heart. The interior is therefore rather dim and poetic.” (pg )





The whole play takes place in Tom’s memory and selective perception plays an important part as insignificant parts may be forgotten and made distorted and expressionistic, juxtaposing with reality, as it exists as an aspect of Tom’s consciousness,


“Yes I have tricks in my pocket, I have things up my


sleeve. But I am the opposite of a stage magician. He gives


you illusion that has the appearance of truth. I give you truth


in the pleasant disguise of illusion.” (pg 4 tgm)


Tom describes the lighting of the Wingfield apartment is of a very shadowy nature, which emphasises the condition of nostalgia and illusion and the resistance against reality in his long retrospective speech as the commerce of the play as he states


“The play is memory. Being a memory play, it is dimly lighted, it is sentimental, it is not realistic.” (5)


In ‘The Glass Menagerie’ the sources of music weaves through the scenes, bridging the sphere of time, highlighting the illusionary world of the past by which Amanda is obsessed and the immutable sorrow of life persists under the superficial gaiety. The victrola, Laura plays represent the youth of her parents and the dance hall mixes the hot swing of the thirties with the slow tangos of the twenties and the tender waltzes of Amanda’s girlhood that she strives to retain. The victrola is also seen as an escape mechanism for Laura as it supplies a delicate and kind association that is contrary to the outside world.


The portrait of the absent father is very influential towards the rest of the characters and his facial expressions are emphasised to highlight the misery and reality of the situation and circumstances in the Wingfield household that the father has escaped from,


“There is a fifth character in the play who doesn’t appear except in this larger-than- life photograph over the mantel. This is our father who left us a long time ago. He was a telephone man who fell in love with long distances; he gave up his job with the telephone company and skipped the light fantastic out of town…”


Williams depicts Tom as expressing discontentment towards his circumstances in life as he recalls his depressed years of when he worked in a warehouse but revealing aspirations illusions of fulfilling his dreams and escaping from reality and becoming a successful poet. In order to escape the situation at home and reality Tom escapes to the movies and turns to alcohol, like Blanche. Williams depicts the character of Tom as exemplifying the fact that he has transformed his yearned illusions into reality, providing a connection between the two evocative concepts as he escapes from his situation at home that he long resents in order to fulfil his dreams. This is emphasised as his retrospective narration conducted at the beginning of the play is carried out as “Tom enter, dressed as a merchant sailor”.


Tom is ultimately, however seen as a victim of illusions as although he escapes the drabness of his warehouse job and the discomforts of his home life, as a narrator he knows from experience, that no amount of travel and adventure will free him from his illusions and shake that demon that is within him. Williams presents Tom as a poet and his diction confirms this, as his dialogue is rebellious and imaginative this is depicted when he speaks with his mother as he portrays an ambitious side that he longs to fulfil but nevertheless is aware of his obligations to his family,





“…Listen! You think I’m crazy about the warehouse? [He bends fiercely toward her slight figure.] You think I’m in love with the continental shoemakers? You think I want to spend fifty-five years down there in that � celotex interior! with � florescent � tubes! Look I rather somebody picked up a crowbar and battered my brains-than go back mornings! I go! Every time you come in yelling that damn “rise and shine!” “Rise and shine!” I say to myself “How lucky dead people are!” But I get up. I go! For sixty five dollars a month I give up all that I dream of doing and being ever!”


Tom’s wish to live the life of a hero in an adventure film through the role as a merchant seaman is accomplished and Tom’s longing to go to the Movies symbolises his determination to leave the apartment and escape into reality, a place where one can find adventure but Tom being a poet is kept from entering reality by Amanda who criticises him as being a “selfish dreamer”,


“…I know what you’re dreaming of. I’m not


standing here blindfolded, [she pauses.] Very well, then.


Then do it! But nit till there’s somebody to take your place…


Overcome selfishness! Self, self, self is all that


You ever think of” (pg 5)


Ultimately Tom does escape and turn his dream into reality by transferring the payment of the light bill to pay for his dues in the Merchant Seaman’s Union. This is his passport out of the drab of existence at the warehouse and the Wingfield apartment. However in his final speech it is apparent that even the Merchant Marine has offered no escape from his responsibility to Laura, the memory of whom haunts him wherever he goes. This portrays that reality does not allow his dreams and illusions to be fulfilled because reality exists as a stronger force intruding upon desired dreams of escapism,





“…Oh Laura, Laura I have tried to leave you behind, but I am more faithful than I intended to be! I reach for a cigarette I cross the street, I run into the movies or a bar, I buy a drink, I speak to the nearest stranger-anything that can blow your candles out!


[Laura bends over the candles.]


For nowadays the world is lit by lightning! Blow out your candles, Laura- and so goodbye…


[She blows the candles out.]” 7


The fire escape holds fundamental symbolic significance as it represents a bridge between the illusionary world of the Wingfields and the world of reality. The people in the Wingfield apartment are figuratively burning and the fire escape is the only immediate escape. It appears to be a one-way passage but the direction varies for each character. For Tom it is an entrance into the real world away from Laura and Amanda. He stands outside to smoke and does not like being part of the illusionary world indoors. For Laura the fire escape is a way into her own illusionary world and to escape reality as she thinks of it as a way in. This is conveyed when Amanda sends Laura to the store and Laura trips on the fire escape this also illustrates that Laura fears the outside world and emotions greatly affect her physical condition,


[She pulls on a shapeless felt hat with a nervous, jerky movement, pleading glancing at Tom. She rushes awkwardly for her coat…]





“AMANDA Laura, go now or just don’t go at all!


LAURA [rushing out] Going � going!


[A second later she cries out. Tom springs up and crosses to the door. Tom opens the door. Tom opens the door.]


TOM Laura?


LAURA I’m alright. I slipped, but I’m all right”


Williams evocatively depicts the powerful contrast between reality and illusion within the portrayal of the character of Stanley as a representative of reality in “A Streetcar Named Desire” and as having parallels with the character of Jim. Stanley is conveyed as an embodiment of reality, as he is responsible for the revelation of truth regarding Blanche’s promiscuous past. Stanley powerfully degrades Blanche towards the end of the play and completely destroys her by violently raping her, which leads to the complete psychological destruction of Blanche and her harsh removal from reality.





Williams presents Stanley as ultimately exposing the reality regarding Blanche’s past as continues his attempt to reveal the truth.


BLANCHE “I don’t want realism… I tell you what I want. Magic!…


Yes! yes, magic! I try to give that to people. I misrepresent things to them. I don’t tell the truth I tell what ought to be the truth. And if that is sinful, then let me be damned for it! � Don’t turn the light on!” (astnd )


In the character of Stanley Williams manifests that he does not enjoy magic and only longs for the truth,


STANLEY …Some men


Are took in by this Hollywood glamour stuff and


some men are not.


Williams displays the powerfully evocative contradiction between Stanley and Blanche that creates much tension between the two characters and the climax reaches its peak when Stanley exposes Blanche’s promiscuous past while Blanche ironically sings in the bath,


STANLEY Our supply man down at the plant had been going


through Laurel for years and he knows all about her


and everybody else in the town of Laurel knows all


about her. She is as famous in Laurel as if she was


the president of the United States, only she is not


respected by any party! This supply-man stops at a


hotel called the Flamingo.


BLANCHE (singing blithely)


Say, it’s only a paper moon, sailing over a


cardboard sea �


But it wouldn’t be make-believe If you believed in


Me!… (streetcar 7)


“It’s a Barnum and Bailey world, Just as phoney as it


can be” 81





Williams reveals a symbolic collision between their two philosophies, as the louder Stanley continues insisting on undeniable facts about Blanche, the louder Blanche sings. Williams highlights the extremes of reality and illusions within the characters of Blanch and Stanley as their paradoxical motives in life illustrate the portrayal of reality and illusion.





Stanley is conveyed as an animalistic and brutal character that confronts the harshness of the reality of life. No reference is made to Stanley’s past, which suggests he is a character who accepts his present circumstances and lives in realism.


Blanche believes that bathing will symbolically spiritually purify and cleanse the stained past and ugly reality that she refuses to accept that reveals her apprehensions regarding reality she strives to transform and legitimate.


Blanche’s stress on seeing something that shatters an ideal or an illusion is echoed throughout the whole play. As Bigsby points out


“the thought with be reiterated (repeated) as a theatrical (dramatic) metaphor at the beginning of scene 10 when Blanche’s romantic fantasy in cut short by a glimpse of herself in a hand mirror which she then breaks.“ bigsby


Williams symbolically presents the breakage of the glass as representing shattered hopes and illusions and the harshness of reality,


“Trembling she lifts the hand mirror for a closer inspection. She catches her breath and slams the mirror face down with such violence that the class cracks.


Music in an effective device that is utilised by Williams to reflect Blanche’s emotions and the blue piano represents Blanche’s insecurity, as she requires shelter and companionship, which is a factor that has led to her psychological breakdown. The blue piano also signifies the claustrophobic atmosphere of Elysian Fields,


………..


The music is apparent when she recounts the deaths at Belle Reeve, kisses the newsboy and it is the loudest when she departs to the asylum.


The varsouviana echoes her guilt about her husband’s death, a disaster to Blanche. It also provides psychological intimacy and is an important technique that allows us access into Blanche’s mind thus illustrating her psychological deterioration. The death of Allan Grey remains to be a tragically disturbing event of her life and a part of her ugly reality for which she holds her self responsible.


The gunshot releases her from the torture that she experiences every time she hears the Varsouvianna playing and retrieves her return to reality,


“…(She touches her forehead vaguely. The polka tune starts up again.) � pretend I don’t notice anything different about you! That �


music again…


MITCH What music?


BLANCHE The “varsouvianna”? The polka tune that they were playing. When Allan � Wait!


A distant revolver shot is heard. Blanche seems relieved.


BLANCHE There now, the shot! It always stops after that.


The polka tune music dies out again.”


Blanche’s fineries emphasise her neglect of reality as she fulfils a fictional role in an illusionary, fantasy world that she utilises as a fa├žade to disguise and hide ugly reality that she cannot tolerate, as it has led to her destruction,


“As the drinking and packing went on, a mood of hysterical exhilaration came into her and she has decked herself out in a somewhat soiled and crumpled white satin evening gown and a pair of scuffed silver slippers with brilliants set in their heels. Now she is placing the rhinestone tiara on her head before the mirror of the dressing-table and murmuring excitedly as if to a group of spectral admirers.”


Blanche’s imagination aids her survival and highlights her aristocratic attitude that she portrays as a southern belle holding and perpetuating an ascending and eloquent social position that no longer exists.


Blanche is ultimately raped in her southern belle dress and completely obliterates her from reality as the consequences lead to severe psychological deterioration and in turn to schizophrenia, where she is unable to distinguish between reality and illusion.


Stanley’s denim clothes provide a contrast to Blanche’s appearance that signify a working class background and a symbol of the American Dream that relates to the acceptance of reality.


Williams utilises Light is crucial symbolic factor to represents truth that illuminates the rejection of reality. Light fulfils a fundamental role between Stanley and Blanche and Jim and Laura whom can be perceived polar opposites and presented as an antithesis of reality and illusion. Blanche is constantly associated with light from her first appearance in the play in which Williams describes her as a moth,





“There is something about her uncertain manner, as well as her white clothes that suggest that she is a moth.” (asnd) pg 4


Blanche longs to camouflage reality as she puts an artificial lantern on the light bulb to live her world of deception and illusion,





“I brought this adorable little coloured paper lantern at a Chinese shop on Bourbon. Put it over the light bulb! Will you, please?” asnd Pg


However Stanley reveals the truth that Blanche attempts to conceal and brings to light the true facts regarding Blanche’s past and recognises that she is an embodiment of deception and conceit,


“there isn’t a goddam thing but imagination…and lies and conceit and tricks!” (scnd pg 10)


Mitch also acknowledges Blanche’s history via Stanley, the source behind the provision of reality and proceeds to rip off the paper lantern from the light bulb and demands to look at her face,…….


…………..quote……………


Stella is an ambiguous character created by Williams, in “A Streetcar Named Desire” who is absorbed into Stanley’s world, which she believes is vital in order for her to survive. She has surrendered to Stanley’s way of life and it’s values. Stella provides the link between the two characters, as she must listen to the fact provided by Stanley and the virtues of idealism given to her by Blanche.


Stella makes a clear decision between Stanley and Blanche, after Blanche has made negative condemnations regarding Stanley, in attempt to persuade Stella to escape,


“STELLA has embraced him with both arms, fiercely,


And full in the view of BLANCHE. He laughs


and clasps her head to him.”





Stella’s comprises a state of “narcotised tranquillity” in her existence at the end of scene four, that reveals that she willingly accepts Stanley’s domineering behaviour and machismo. She cannot imagine life without Stanley therefore her readiness to sacrifice her sister becomes inevitable. She has made a compromise that depicts her commitment to Stanley, which may serve as a survival mechanism for her and her new baby. It can be argued that Stella does not want to confront reality as it may occur to her that Blanche may be correct regarding her accusations about Stanley,


“STELLA I couldn’t believe her story and go on living with Stanley.


EUNICE Don’t ever believe it. Life has got to go on. No matter what happens, you’ve always got to keep going.”


In this exchange between Stella and Eunice, Williams clearly depicts Stella’s unwillingness to consider Blanche’s explanations as she rejects the acceptance of what may actually be reality thus making a compromising her relationship with Blanche.


Williams presents Jim O’Coner, as the gentleman caller in “The Glass Menagerie” who is long anticipated by Amanda because he is whom they have waited for all their lives. He has parallels with the character of Mitch as they both serve to fulfil a sense of hope. Jim symbolises the outside world from which the Wingfields are somewhat isolated. He compares to Stanley in the sense that he also symbolises reality in “The Glass Menagerie” representing the one thing that Laura and Amanda fear and reject to confront. He represents Amanda’s days of youth, when she went frolicking about picking jonquils and supposedly having “seventeen gentlemen caller on one Sunday afternoon”.


Between the spiritual and physical needs of the characters conflict overlays between the painful present and the ideal past.


Jim’s speech is an effective contrast to that of Amanda’s as his diction is one of a person undertaking a course of public speaking, that is warm and friendly. He uses colloquialisms common in the 10’s as he speaks confidently by a culture very different to that of Amanda’s, thus his dialogue can be seen as reflecting his character


“Because I believe in the future of television [turning his back to her.] I wish to be ready to go right along with it. Therefore I’m planning to get in on the ground floor. In fact I’ve already made the right connections and all that remains if for industry itself to get under way! Full steam-[his eyes are starry] knowledge-Zzzzzp! Money-Zzzzzp! Power! That the cycle democracy is built on!”


Jim reveals enthusiasm and inspiration as he is concerned with achievement and development, his illusion appears to be the American dream, which juxtaposes with Amanda and Laura who maintain their stasis in time,


“…What impressed me the most was the Hall of Science. Gives you an idea of what the future will be in America, even more wonderful than the present time is” tgm 7


Jim reveals his contact with the outside world, which is evident in the eager tome of voice.


Although Amanda desires to see Laura settled down it is hard to distinguish whether she longs for the gentleman caller to be invited for Laura or herself. Ultimately he fails to fulfil the role of as a redeemer for Laura.


However Jim himself is plagued by doubts and must live in his own world of illusion, he thus symbolises the universality of uncertainty and inability to live in a harsh reality.





Light is associated with Jim as he represents reality, an antithesis to Laura’s dark and melancholy world in her rejection of reality. He is also referred to as “Mr. Light bulb” (67)


He also brings in the candles when he approaches Laura,


“[Jim comes into the dining room, carrying the candelabrum, it’s candles lighted, in one hand…] (pg 70)


When the atmosphere is invaded by darkness during the meal at the Wingfield’s Jim enters with the candles that provide the light, symbolically representing an embodiment of the truth and reality towards which Laura behaves in a fearful manner. This illuminates the juxtaposition of illusion and reality represented by Jim and Laura.


“[Jim comes into the dinning room, carrying the candelabrum, it’s candles lightened, in one hand and a glass of wine in the other. The door of the kitchenette swings closed on Amanda’ gay laughter; the flickering light approaches the portieres. Laura sits up nervously as Jim enters. She can hardly speak from the almost intolerable strain of being alone with a stranger. ]” 70 tgm


However candle light as the only source of light that is available during Jim’s visit illustrates that he is not the saviour and sign of hope that Amanda assumes he is as his departure shatters her illusions. This could also be symbolised by the failure of electricity after their dinner. Eventually he leaves Laura in the darkness, which is symbolised by the black - out and by Laura blowing out Jim’s candles to end the play. The joyful moments flicker only for an instant within the surrounding darkness of eternity as when Jim and Laura look at the little glass unicorn together by candlelight. The gentle man caller does not fulfil the role of a redeemer and the altar candles in Laura’s heart are soon extinguished.


Stanley and Jim are nevertheless not suspended in time and represent reality. They represent the American dream and accept their life and work on the principle of meritocracy in a democratic society. The character of Stanley has no past, which emphasises further that he lives in the present,


“I am not a Polack. People from Poland are Poles, not Polacks. But what I am is one hundred percent American, born and raised in the greatest country on earth and proud as hell of it, so don’t ever call me a Polack.” Scnd 1


In conclusion, Williams very effectively presents the conflict between reality and illusion and he communicates his themes very successfully through a variety of dramatic techniques such as characterisation, setting and symbolism, which includes light and sound. As the audience, tribute can be paid to his powerful dramatisation of this antithesis of the playwright.








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