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Friday, August 12, 2011

issues analysis

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The Title of the article ‘give the lady a gun’ automatically suggests that the author Neil Mitchell is all for the use of women in combat as displayed by the opening paragraph - which bluntly states that women are better than men. As soon as the reader comprehends these initial first words, there leaves no doubt that the reast of the article will follow suit in its pro women in combat slant. Whilst it is clear from Mitchell’s title and opening that he is bias toward women in this issue it differs entirely from the other two respective articles.


When first reading the title of Pamela Bone’s ‘The sexes of the battle’, it does not give the impression that she is pro or con on the issue but rather neutral and simply stating the facts regardig the debate on whether or not women should be allowed in combat. This is also apparent in Beth Gillin’s ‘Women’s place in battle queried’. These titles are not as seductively impressive as Mitchell’s title but their opening paragraphs of both articles impresses the reader with the writers stance on the issue, which in both instances are fairly impartial with Bone’s article leaning more toward a question of choice.


The opening statement of Bone’s ‘the sexes of the battle’ questions the irony of allowing women in battle, but restricting them from the battle frontlines. This gives the reader the impression that Bone finds this ruling as contradictory and condescending in terms of women’s equality in terms of soldiering abilities. Gillin’s opening statement in her article ‘ Women’s place in battle queried’, plays on the anti women in combat slant by using sympathetic tones by contrasting the actual situation with the supposed.


In analysing the tone of each article, starting with Mitchell’s, where throughout most of the article he demonstrates a pro women in combat opinion, by comparing their abilities to men’s, using statements such as “ women are smarter, more intuitive, less aggressive and better decision makers” and “ they are more likely to be clear headed in a crisis”. These statements are indicative of the whole tone of his article as there are many more points he uses to impress upon the reader his bias toward women being just as good a soldier as men and should be treated as an equal in war. Quite the contrary to Gillin’s tone which is mostly reproachful of using women in combat, whilst still just stating the facts. Her attitude is vividly displayed in her statement which follows the plight of three women soldiers in the iraq war, one of whom died, the others were prisoners of war. The statement says” All three were in harm’s way, but their maintenance jobs were presumed to be safer than front-line positions.” Bone’s article is more equilibrated in its tone, and this is demonstrated by her use of data and quotes from many sources, which allows the reader to form their own opinion.


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In comparing the photos used in the two articles of Gillin’s and Mitchell’s, we see the use of images that are more emotional than informative to the reader. The photo used for Beth Gillin’s article shows the women Lori Piestewa, that was shot in combat, of americal indian descent, and a mother of two young children, by using this photo added to the data it engages the readers sympathy and attention and draws a negative response toward using women in battle. Mitchell’s photo on the other hand shows strong fit attractive and intelligent Australian female Liuetenant on board the HMAS Kanimbla this woman clearly displays great capability and strength in combat.


Bone’s article had no photo or cartoon, leaving the reader to establish an opinion based on facts, and data that she has gathered and presented, rather than blindly following the writers stance on the issue.


All three articles have used examples to present their arguments, in the case of Mitchell and Gillin they both used the subject of Private Jessica Lynch a prisoner of war who underwent torture and finally rescued, glorifying her strength and courage. In Mitchell’s article he presents her as a national hero who is an exemplary figure to all women in general, but specifically to women soldiers. In Gillin’s article she presents her as a victim who should not have been in the firing line at all, but nevertheless courageous in her stand against the enemy and later on in her survival even after hideous torture. Again raising the status of Private Lynch to that of national hero. In the case of Bone she mentions Private Lynch briefly in her first paragraphs, working with facts and statements from army officials. Bone comments on her being pretty, blonde, 1 and destined to become the symbol of women fighters in the war in Iraq. This is more a statement on the public need for war heroes than her own opinion. Bone prefers to quote Bloomsbury feminist Virginia Woolf and other feminists, politicians and authors using their opinions and quotes to deliver a more balance view of the issue.


Having analysed all three articles and considered the validity of their content I believe that if a women is physically, mentally and emotionally equipped for frontline battle as a man is then I don’t see why the military restrictions apply. I believe women should be given a choice whether they want to serve in the military, which in turn means the possibility of involvement in frontline combat. Since women are avidly active in the political arena, which can govern the destiny of whether a country goes to war or not, they should also be prepared to fight for their decisions their government has made even if it means going to war.














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Tuesday, August 9, 2011

comparative essay: the catcher in the rye vs. lord of the flies

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Comparative Essay The Catcher in the Rye vs. Lord of the Flies


The novels Lord of the Flies and The Catcher in the Rye share similar themes. One of


these themes is the loss of innocence as one is faced with new responsibilities and the transition


from childhood into the corruption of the adult world. The main characters in these novels


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encounter situations that help them mature, and situations that bring them into the evils of the


adult world. By becoming mature, learning to act responsible, and encountering death, the


characters lose their innocence and come into the adult world.


Evidence that the characters were maturing was present in Lord of the Flies, The


characters show signs of maturing at the very beginning of the novel. After they realize that there


are no adults and that they will have to, “look after [themselves]” (Golding, 1), they quickly elect


Ralph as their chief. Being chief, Ralph is expected to act responsibly with the power that his


status brought to him. He gives the others jobs to do and establishes temporary order in the new


“tribe” with, “rules... lots of rules!” (Golding, ). Even with the new rules and leadership


established, the boys on the island, according to Piggy, are “acting like a crowd of kids” (Golding,


8). Piggy acts maturely throughout the novel. His opinion is ignored at first, but he quickly


learns to speak up when the boys accidentally set half of the forest on fire, “Piggy [loses] his


temper” (Golding 45), and points out how irresponsible the boys are acting, “... the first time


Ralph says ‘fire’ you fo howling and screaming up the mountain. Like a pack of kids!” How can


you expect to be rescued if you don’t put first things first” (Golding, 45). Jack shows a sign of


maturity after he disobeys Ralph’s orders and lets the fire to out, “Im sorry. About the fire. I


mean, there. I� I apologize (Golding 7).


Holden Caulfield, the main character in The Catcher in the Rye, has a difficult time coming


into the adult world. “I act quite young for my age... and sometimes I act like I’m 1... one side of


my head is filled with gray hairs (Salinger, ), this reveals that Holden has doubts about acting


mature, because that means leaving his childhood behind. His one side of gray hair shows that a


part of him is already coming into the adult world and the other part of him wants to stay innocent


and protected. Holden attempts to act mature around adults, but his childish thoughts sometimes


show through, especially when he reveals his childish curiosity about the ducks in Central Park.


Holden’s attempts to enter the adult world are made clear during his attempts to order alcohol in


bars. Even though he is sometimes denied because of his age, these attempts show that he is still


trying to enter the adult world, because drinking alcohol is a symbol of age and maturity. The


evidence that Holden matured through the novel is strongest when the above statements are


contrasted with the end of the novel, when holden realizes that he cant protect everyone from


everything, “the thing with kids is, if they want to grab the gold ring, you have to let them do it,


and not say anything. If they fall off, they fall off, but its bad if you say anything to them”


(Salinger, 11). The characters in both novels mature at their own pace and in their own unique


ways, however they all have trouble with the transition, facing many difficult situations and


setbacks, all of which help them grow and continue into adulthood.


The main characters in Lord of the Flies have experiences involving death that contribute


to their fall from innocence. The characters witness or contribute to the death of animals and


humans in this novel. At the beginning of the novel, Jack Merridew thinks that he wants to kill,


but is hesitant to do it, “They knew very well why he hadn’t [killed the pig] because of the


enormity of the knife descending and cutting into living flesh; because of the unbearable blood.”


(Golding, 1). When Jack’s second attempt to kill fails, “he tried to convey the compulsion to


track down and kill that was swallowing him up... [and he said] I thought I might kill. Next


time!’ ” (Golding 51). These two failures, especially the first one, reveal that Jack is still holding


on to the innocence that killing a living thing will take away. He has the desire to take a life as a


right of passage into adulthood, but he fails because he is still hanging onto his innocence. During


Jack’s third attempt, and his first success at killing, he is accompanied by his “hunters”, which are


the boys from the choir. The hunters chant “Kill the pig. Cut her throat. Spill her blood” (Golding


6), as they come toward Ralph to tell him about their experience. The new experience consumed


Jack, “His mind was crowded with memories... of the knowledge that had come to them when


they closed in on the struggling pig, knowledge that they had out witted a living thing, imposed


their will upon it, taken away it’s life like a long satisfying drink” (Golding 70). This kill,


contributing to the loss of innocence and acting as a passage into the adult world, is not the end of


Jack’s exposure to the corruption of the adult world. Jack and his hunters break off into their own


tribe and kill one more pig before Jack and his tribe ultimately lose every bit of their innocence.


That night, around the fire roasting the dead pig, the boys get caught up in the moment and make


a terrible mistake, “A thing was crawling out of the forest... Simon was crying out something


about a dead man on a hill, [the boys yelled] ‘Kill the beast! Cut his throat! Spill his blood! Do


him in!’... the beast was on its knees in the center [of the circle]...It was crying out... about a body


on the hill... [the beast] fell over the steep edge of the rock to the sand by the water” (Golding


15-15). Simon is dead because the boys discovered that they can take a life, but do not have the


discipline, (that comes with maturity), to control their urges. When Ralph and Piggy approach the


hunters, Piggy is struck with a rock and killed in their attempt to hit Ralph. Realizing all that had


happened to the boys on the island, “Ralph wept for the end of innocence, the darkness of man’s


heart, and the fall through the air of the true, wise friend called Piggy” (Golding 0).


Holden’s experiences with death in Catcher in the Rye are not as severe in contrast with


the experiences of the boys in Lord of the Flies. Holden’s experiences with death include losing a


loved one, knowing a person who committed suicide, and his own suicidal thoughts. Holden had


been exposed to death at an early age, “My brother Allie... he’s dead now. He got leukemia and


died... on July 18, 146... I slept in the garage the night that he died and I broke all the goddamn


windows with my fist.” (Salinger, 8-). When Holden is walking, drunk, in Central Park on a


cold night he thinks that he might get pneumonia and starts to think about what people would do


if he died. This makes him think of Allie, “I certainly don’t like seeing him in that crazy cemetery.


Surrounded by dead guys and tombstones and all” (Salinger,155), this shows that Holden is


hanging on to the innocence that his brothers death would have taken away from him if Holden


had accepted it. He sees his brother as a model of innocence, he died when he was young so he


will forever be young. Phoebe helps Holden come to the realization that their brother is dead


when Holden visits her, “Allie’s dead� you always say that! If somebody’s dead and everything,


and in heaven, then it isn’t really�” (Salinger 171). Another experience with death that Holden


talks about is James Castle, “I won’t even tell you what they did to him�its too repulsive�but he


still wouldn’t take [what he said] back...finally what he did instead... he jumped out the window”


(Salinger 170). Holden’s suicidal thoughts and thoughts about killing reveal an obsession with


death that he has, “...pretending I had a bullet in my guts. Old Maurice had plugged me... I


pictured myself coming out of the bathroom... as soon as Old Maurice opened the doors, he’d see


me with the automatic in my hand... I’d plug him anyway. Six shots right through his fat hairy


belly” (Salinger 104). These experiences with death show Holden’s progressing fall from


innocence, even though a part of him wants to hold on to it. The thoughts that he has reveal that


he is coming into the corrupt adult world whether he likes it or not.


The many encounters with death that the characters in both novels experienced, had a


significant impact on their corruption and loss of innocence. With those, and other experiences,


most of them learned to act mature and responsible, with the exception of Jack, who lost his


ability to do so as the novel progressed. The themes of transition from childhood into adulthood


and the and the loss of innocence were demonstrated clearly by both Salinger and Golding.








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The Myth of Consumerism

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Every society has mythology. In some societies, its religion. Our religion is consumerism.


In a capitalist society, the goal is to make money, by whatever means possible, exploiting whichever potential weakness that might exist. The human race is one with a wild imagination, and this wild imagination, though a great strength, can, like all great strengths, serve as a potential weakness.


It is our imaginations that advertising exploits, and it is our imaginations that religion and myth traditionally played the role of satiating, telling stories that have morals to them, lessons to be learned. Now consumerism fulfills this role. The consumer ideology serves as the golden rule, advertising serves as sermons, products serve as our idoltry, and just as religion instills faith at an early age, so too does consumerism.


Ellen Weis (qtd. in Advertising Characters 17) speaks from the perspective of one who is an authority on mythology. Her analogy between religion and consumerism is an accurate one. Undoubtedly, shes referring to this role that consumerism is playing in stimulating our imaginations. It does this by telling us a story, with us playing the lead role, painting a picture of life as being better with the products being sold to us. Our imaginations are carried away by these stories. We want to believe them because they make sense of the world. We want to believe that all it takes to be happy is a trip to the store. This making sense of the world and simplifying to such a triviality is exactly the reason why myths are created.


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For example, nearly every cigerette ad features a picture of an ideal person smoking their brand, ideal at least by the standards of most people who long to be accepted. For women, the smoker typically has long blonde hair, a beautiful smile, and perfect, white teeth. The ads that best demonstrates this are those for Virginia Slims. For men you have Marlboro with the infamous Marlboro man, who is a rugged, handsome loner out in the countryside with his horse and campfire. The ads seem to say, this could be you. All it takes is a trip to the store and a couple of bucks for a pack.


Like all myths, the stories these ads tell have a moral to them. The lesson they teach is your life can be better with these products or, put another way, you can be a better person with these products. This is the consumer ideology and, just like every religion has some golden rule that pervades all of its lessons, consumerism too has its own golden rule, the consumer ideology. All of its lessons seem to be based upon this underlying assumption that more is better, that we need the things were being sold, and that somehow buying them will make us happier and better people.


Of course the medium for these lessons are the ads themselves. Advertising nearly always has some emotional appeal to them. Instead of catering to our intellect and giving us rational reasons why we should consume the products they flaunt, rather they cater to our emotions. What better way to stimulate our imaginations? This is almost directly analogous to the emotional appeal traditionally found in sermons. Especially before our society has become so secular and scientific, sermons were heavily driven by emotion.


One heavy emotion that were susceptible to is fear. Fear tactics are used in advertising just as they are in sermons. For example, the Dial soap ads use the slogan, arent you glad you use Dial? Dont you wish everyone did? This slogan seems to assume that the consumer already uses their product which cant possibly be the case because if it were, why would they need to advertise? Thus they seem to be implying that if you arent using Dial, youd sure better redeem yourself quickly before they find out! Similar fear tactics are also used in religious sermons. One extreme example of such sermons are those presented by Jonathan Edwards (170-1758), like Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God, in which he says, for example, that sinners deserve to be cast into hell; so that divine justice never stands in the way, it makes no objection against Gods using his power at any moment to destroy them. Whereas the Dial ads try to subtly hint that youll become one of those people cast from society if you dont redeem yourself, the sermons tend to blatantly tell you that youll become one of those people cast from Gods Kingdom if you dont redeem yourself. One is subtle and the other blatant, but both are effective in swaying their audience.


Just as advertising and sermons both appeal to the emotion of fear, they both also appeal to the emotion of hope. This can be seen in many of the Chevron commercials a few years ago. These ads are almost indistinguishable from religious sermons. They show deeds of great philanthropy and conclude, do people really care this much? People do. They ensure us that there is still hope, that things arent as bad as they seem, although they also seem to imply that theyre somehow partly the cause of it all. Why else would they show the ads? You could almost take such an ad, remove the name Chevron, and call it a sermon on the Good Samaritan. Indeed, the Good Samaritan was a God-fearing person, and the implication is that thats somehow the cause of his good deeds.


Such reassurance almost takes the place of people actually being Good Samaritans themselves. While they themselves seem less than perfect, they can always look to this image of kindness and project onto it their fears of their race being a total abomination of God and be reassured by it. Such projection onto material objects seems almost a religious necessity. Since they cannot have the actual Buddha or the actual Christ, for example, sitting in front of them, they instead meditate or pray to a sacred idol which represents their savior. This sort of idoltry is exactly what consumerism offers. People seek happiness, acceptance, nobility, and love, and since these attributes seem so hard to come by in America, they instead substitute for them the products that represent them, which seem much easier to come by. In fact, they require nothing more than a trip to the market.


Our imaginations are so susceptible to such idoltry that it can be taken to levels of outright absurdity and still be effective. A recent ad for the PalmPilot, which is nothing more than a handheld computer, featured a completely naked woman holding one in such a way as to cover the bare essentials. We cant have the naked woman, but we can have the PalmPilot. Although we seek love and sex, these are harder to obtain, so we settle for a handheld computer thats been visually associated with these desires yet have nothing to do with them.


There are hundreds of stimuli which elicit reactions that are induced by advertising. From before we can speak, we experience constant, repeated, product-oriented stimulation coming in from all five senses. Many companies base their entire existence on the temptation of children. Some of the first words many children speak are from advertising jingles. Its no wonder that were all obsessed with consumerism. Its almost surprising that anyone is capable of breaking this trance. Often, religion is seen as being this way. Although most religions do similarly instill their faith at a young age, the exposure to it isnt nearly as constant and repeated, its message not so tempting. The effect is greatly underestimated and, for the most part, mysterious, because were all caught in its spell.


All of the toy companies and most of the fast food restraunts have multi-million dollar campaigns aimed at children. Its not even children that do the purchasing, its the parents, and these companies are cashing in on the parents love for their children, as well as the susceptable minds of the children. Religion, too, aims a lot of its teachings at children. Almost every church has a Sunday school oriented toward convincing the susceptable children. There are plenty of animated Bible story books available to teach children in a way that they can understand.


The perfect marriage between consumerism and religion can be found in the myth of Santa Claus. As if the celebration of the birth of Christ wasnt quite enough, a new character had to be born, one specifically oriented toward children, one that is more expendible and mysterious. This is religion for children, replacing toys for Heaven, Santa Claus for God, reindeer for angels, and a naughty and nice list for punishing sin. Its difficult to sell Heaven to children because they live much more in the present than do adults, but toys they want, and toys provide instant gratification they can see the results of their behavior on Christmas morning. But most of all, the increased need for toys to supply for this myth provides a tenfold increase in profits. The effect doesnt stop there but trickles down into the economy for the entire lives of those children, for once a child learns the love for toys, they will always love toys, more expensive and exotic though they may be. Whereas a child might have miniature-sized cars for toys, when they get older they have full-sized cars for toys. If consumerism is our religion, then Christmas would be our religious holiday, now representing both our worship for products as well as our worship of Christ.


It seems consumerism shares with religion many more of the bad characteristics than the good. Like the example above shows, consumerism takes advantage of innocent minds much more than religion does. Also, religion serves many good purposes, such as teaching charity and love, whereas consumerism tends to only teach greed and fear. Even Good Samaritan ads, like in the Chevron example, are tainted with the greedy intentions of the company. Finally, although religion does tend to portray sex as taboo, consumerism tends to cash in on this attitude by portraying it as something scary, as in the PalmPilot example; the ads seem to act like the only way to get sex is by buying their products. While some religions and cults have bad effects on peoples minds, consumerism seems to have worse effects. Still, they both share all of their main characteristics morals, stories, idoltry, and faith, but consumerism seems to be coming out ahead in the race for the minds of Americans. Ellen Weis seems correct in calling consumerism our religion.





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Tuesday, August 2, 2011

How has Great Expectations shaped your understanding of “Responsibility”?

If you order your research paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on How has Great Expectations shaped your understanding of “Responsibility”?. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality How has Great Expectations shaped your understanding of “Responsibility”? paper right on time.

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Great Expectations, by Charles Dickens, shows many different examples of


characters accepting, neglecting and showing a lack of responsibility. Through these


examples we can gain a better understanding of the word “Responsibility”. An


examples of taking on responsibility can be seen in the relationship of Pip and


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Magwich. The responsibility shifts from Pip to Magwich and back to Pip in the end.


Also there are many examples of lack of responsibility and neglect through Miss


Havisham & Estella and in the family of Joe, Mrs Joe and Pip. Through these parts in


the novel, as readers we gain an understanding of the issues of responsibility, the


surrounding circumstances and the consequences as a result. Responsibility can be


looked at from different angles. It can be accepted for many different reasons, for


example, love, self gratification, and all of these are present in the novel.


Responsibility can have good or bad consequences and these consequences can help us


grow as our knowledge of responsibility is shaped more and more.


Due to Miss Havisham’s suffering, she had made it her duty to bring up Estella


and to direct her to break the hearts of all men. This is her revenge for the mishap on


her wedding day (although the reader does not know exactly what happened we know


her heart was broken by her husband to be). By allowing Estella to “break the hearts


and have no mercy”, Miss Havisham is neglecting her responsibility in being a good


parent. Miss Havisham had “meant to save her” from her own misery. “At first I


meant no more”, but instead “stole her heart away and put ice in it’s place”. Later in


the novel, when Estella is wedded and abused by her husband, it is then, when Miss


Havisham realises how her want of revenge, that she had burdened on Estella, has


effected Estella’s life and made her miserable. “What have I done! What have I


done!” This repeated line uses an exclamation mark instead of a question mark. This


shows that she knows what wrong she has done but it is here in the novel where she is


coming to terms with it. When she took on the responsibility of bringing up Estella in


this way, she did not consider how it could effect Estella in the later part of her life, in


the future. Through this issue in the novel we, as the reader, are subject to the idea of


family responsibility. Dickens shows us that when we neglect responsibility in our


family, particularly as a guardian or a parent, there can be physical consequences and


emotional consequences. In Miss Havisham’s case, she suffered emotional


consequences and Estella is subject to both physical and emotional consequences due


to Miss Havisham’s lack of family responsibility.


The relationship between Pip and Magwich shows us aspects of responsibility


all throughout the novel. In the very beginning, when Pip is faced by the terrifying


convict of whom he had never met, even though he is scared, he takes on the


responsibility of getting food and brandy for him. Pip does this knowing what


consequences there were of stealing the pie and brandy from his angry and bitter sister,


but still provides Magwich with this act of kindness. Magwich never forgets of this


kindness towards him and this is shown later in the novel when we find out that he is


Pip’s benefactor. “I swore that time, sure as ever I earned a guinea, that guinea should


go to you”, as Magwich speaks of the time when Pip brought him the food and brandy.


And so Magwich has taken on this responsibility. There are many reasons why he


could have taken on the responsibility. maybe to seek self-gratification in knowing


that he make a gentleman of Pip or maybe for revenge on society to prove that he was


more than just a convict. “Yes Pip dear boy, I’ve made a gentleman of you.”


Eitherway, we learn through this as readers, that people take on responsibility for


different reasons. And at this point in the novel, when Pip realises that Magwich is his


benefactor, the responsibility shifts place again, back onto Pip. Magwich, having to


face the death penalty if found, has left a consequence in his return and Pip feels


obliged to take on the responsibility to get him out safely. Through these series of


events in the relationship between Pip and Magwich, we see how there are different


reasons for accepting responsibility, we also see how some times we don’t really have


a choice due to our emotions. For instance in Pip’s case his emotions led him to


taking responsibility in getting Magwich safe, to repay him for what he has done. We


also learn how responsibility leads to consequences, both good and bad.


There are very different relationships between Pip & Mrs Joe, and Pip & Joe,


this being because Mrs Joe and Joe are two completely different people. Mrs Joe


being very angry and bitter and Joe, a very kind hearted person. But no matter the


difference in personalities, they both neglect their responsibility for Pip one way or


another, showing a lack of responsibility. Firstly Mrs Joe, although she is looking


after Pip and has brought him up ”by hand” she is doing it in the wrong manner. She


is violent, “my sister made a dive at me and fished me up by the hair”, she is unkind


“saying nothin more than aweful words” and she has too many expectations of Pip.


For example forcing him to play at Miss Havisham’s, for her own benefit (having links


to a higher class). Secondly, Joe, who is a kind, gentle man seems to take great


responsibility for Pip and although he does, take on the responsibility, he is not


fulfilling it by allowing his wife to treat Pip in such an aweful manner and he does not


stop the violent and harsh environment his wife inflicts on Pip. In this way we see


Joe’s weakness reflect his lack of responsibility. later on in the novel, we see another


example of neglect of responsibility. This is when Mrs Joe is attacked. Pip “had


deserted Joe” when he should have stayed home with Joe through this hard time. The


relationships between Joe, Mrs Joe and Pip show us neglect of and lack of


responsibility through each of the characters.


The theme of responsibility can be seen all throughout the novel and through


the issues in which it is rooted, as readers, we can develop and shape our


understanding of responsibility. By seeing responsibility or a lack of responsibility


played in the parts of different characters, our knowledge is expanded and we learn


what consequences arise when different types of responsibility is taken on. Through


reading such texts, we view different ideas and different aspects of responsibility and


this is what helps us shape our knowledge of what responsibility is.


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