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Friday, October 7, 2011

big bang theory

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The big bang is an vital scientific theory about the origin of the universe. It occurred about 15 to 18 billion years ago. It marked the instantaneous creation of all matter in the universe. The explosion that took place was not a normal explosion; starting as a point of infinite density, thus called the “primordial nucleus”. It expanded at speeds equal to and even greater then light. However, according to the Big Bang theory, the universe will continue to expand for billions of years. The galaxies do not expand. The galaxies will get farther apart and farther apart as time moves on. All forms of matter were formed during this time period. This theory impacted the scientific world and still is an integral part of the scientific world and in the formation of the universe. According to the Big Bang theory the universe should consist of approximately seventy � five percent of hydrogen and twenty-five percent of helium. The universe for a short yet brief time was stuck in a “false vacuum”. Then it from the state of being a “false vacuum” to a “true vacuum”, the state the universe is in today.


As the universe has expanded, it has also cooled down 10 -5 seconds, the temperature was at 10 -7 degrees K. at this crucial temperature, the universe underwent what is called a “phase of transition”, something like the process that happens when the liquid water freezes into ice. The strong nuclear force, which acts at a very short distances and holds the protons and neutrons together, separate to form the other forces. Physicists have named this process “symmetry breaking” and it released a tremendous amount of energy. Then, in an extraordinary instant theorists have labeled it “inflation”, the universe expanded exponentially. Things slowed down a bit after the inflationary epoch. There were photons, quarks, neutrinos, and electrons, and then protons and neutrons condensed out all in less than one second after the Big Bang. Space expanded and cooled down a bit.


It was believed that the universe had no beginning or end and was truly infinite. The origin of the Big Bang Theory can be credited to Edwin Hubble. Hubble made the observations that the universe is constantly expanding from every direction. He discovered that a galaxy’s velocity is propotional to its distance. Galaxies that are twice as far from the earth and move twice as fast. An additional consequence is that the universe is expanding in every direction. This means that has taken every galaxy the same amount of time to move from a common starting position . NASA’s COBE satellite was able to detect cosmic micro-waves coming outer reaches of the universe. However, the satellite also discovered that as a universe began to cool down and was still expanding, small fluctuations began to exist due to temperature differences. These fluctuations verified prior calculations of possible cooling and development of the universe provided a more explicit description of the first moments after the Big Bang. As more observations are made and more research conducted, the Big Bang theory becomes more fully developed and our knowledge of the origins of the universe more tangible.


Immediatley after the Big Bang,as one might imagine, the universe was extremely hot resulting from the particles of both matter and anti- matter rushing apart in all directions. As the cooling started there was an almost equivalent and assymetrical amount of matter and anti-matter. Familiar particles started to form as the universe expanded further. The particles were baryons, including photons, neutrinos, electrons and quarks. These were the building blocks of matter and life. After the universe had cooled to about three thousand billion degrees Kelvin, a fundamental transition began, which, has been linked to the “phase transition”.


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Consolidated particles such as , protons and neutrons, called hadrons, became the common state of matter after this transition. Although lighter partcles, called leptons, also existed, they were prohibited from reacting with the hadrons to form more complex states of matter. These leptons, which included electrons, neutrinos and photons, would soon be able to join their hadron kin union that would define present day common matter. After about one to three minutes had passed since the creation of the universe, protons, and neautrons began to react with each other to form deuterium, an isotope of hydrogen. Most scientists believe that there was one helium nucleus for every ten protons within the first three minutes of the universe. After further cooling, these excesses proton would be able to capture an electron to create a common hydrogen.


Known as singularity, this is the moment before creation when space and time did not exist. Cosmology theorists combined with the observations of their astronomy colleagues have been able to reconstrust the primordial chronology of events known as the Big Bang. Quantum theory suggests that moments after the explosion at 10-4 seconds, the four forces of nature, strong nuclear, weak nuclear, electromagnetic, and gravity were combined as a single “super force”. Elementary particles known as quarks begin to bond in trios, forming photons, positions and neutrinos were created along with their anti- particles. At the time of this creation of particles the universe was going through a rate of expansion many times the speed of light. The universe at this instant was an ionized plasma where matter and radiation were inseparable. Also there was an equal amount of particles and anti-particles. Eventually. The remaining neutrons combine in pairs and form helium nuclei.





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