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Tuesday, July 31, 2012

Myth

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Young Dionysus went to the mountain of northern Greece, there he made a great discovery, a discovery so great it made him a god. The heavy clusters of grapes that grew on mountains were something that Dionysus loved to eat them and also drink the liquid juice it created. When the liquid was stored for several months it’s flavor was more stimulating. This was wine and eventually Dionysus became the god of wine


Dionysus would share his wine with many of his satyr friends; they were snub-nosed creatures and drinks many galloons of his delicious wine and then get drunk and into trouble. One day of his satyr’s named Silenus after he drank a numerous amount of wine was drunk on his donkey and wandered into King Midas’ rose garden. When King


Midas’ servants found him they took good care of him for ten days. When Midas took Silenus back Dionysus was very pleased and granted Midas any request he wanted to repay him back. When Midas heard this he was thrilled and asked to turn everything that he touched be turned to gold. Dionysus knew what would happen but still granted his request immediately.


To test his power Midas touched a branch and it was turned to shinning, twinkling gold. When he patted his dog it too was turned to golden statue. King Midas decided to celebrate by having a feast in his kingdom. Even though this power was amazing but also troubling. When he touched his fork to eat it turned to gold, when he took a piece of bread it too was turned to gold. He tried to drink a glass of wine but as soon as he touched it the cup was gold and when his lips touched the wine it too turned to liquid gold. Pretty soon almost everything in his kingdom was being turned to gold and it was becoming more like a sanctuary than a kingdom. If this kept on Midas knew he would die soon so he went back to Dionysus feeling very depressed and asked him to remove this curse that was on him. Luckily Dionysus felt pitiful for him and told his to wash his head and his body in the yonder river and the powers would wash away. Midas did as he was told and lost this unlucky power but the river sands turned a bright gold, as they still are today.


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Please note that this sample paper on Myth is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Myth, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Myth will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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Monday, July 30, 2012

legislations on pharmacy

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The OFT has said that the current licence system restricts consumer choice and inflates prices of over-the-counter medicines, resulting in Britons paying 0 million pounds more for drugs than they would in a deregulated maret. The DTI is expected to go some way towards opening up the market, however, by allowing health authorities to offer more pharmacy licences to create competition and bring down the cost of medicines, which could allow the supermarket chains to open some new in-store outlets. Industry analysts have said the Boots, whose shops are mostly in high street locations, would be most vulnerable to supermarket competition. Britain rejects calls for a full deregulation of its retail pharmacy industry, a government source told Reuters, in a blow to supermarkets such as Tesco plc and Asda. The OFT proposed to open up its 8.6billion pound market for prescription and over-the-counter medicines and remove restrictions which protect the market share of companies such as Boots and Alliance UniChem. This plan would allow big supermarket chains, which have been lobbying the government for easier access to the market for years, to take a bigger share of Britain¡¯s medicine market.


On the side of pharmaceutical retailing, the competition is expected to be intensive. Current licence system restricts consumer choice and inflates prices of OTC medicines, resulting in Britons paying 0 million pounds more for drugs than they would in a deregulated market. The DTI is expected to go some way towards opening up the market by allowing health authorities to offer more pharmacy licences to create competition and bring down the cost of medicines, which could allow the big supermarket chains to open some new in-store outlets, hence take a bigger share of Britain¡¯s medicine market.. If this proposal is accepted, Boots plc, whose shops are mostly in high street locations, would be most vulnerable to supermarket competition. (boots has been protected by the current licence system for years and this advantage is expected to disappeared in a long run) . ¡°Evidence shows that when markets are deregulated the strongest player before deregulation usually remains the strongest player. Supermarkets have just .% of pharmacy outlets


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Superstition

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It may be hard for arachniphobes to believe that spiders ever bring good luck, but this early 0th century good luck postcard proves they do.


Further evidence comes from The Mascot Book by Elizabeth Villiers, published in England in 1. According to Villiers, the spider was popular with the Romans, who had a favourite mascot in the shape of a precious stone upon which a spider was engraved. Also they were fond of carrying little spiders of gold or silver, or any of the fortunate metals, to bring good luck in anything to do with trade.


Spiders have always meant good luck to professional weavers and spinners, for obvious reasons, but corroboration of the spiders financial symbolism is provided by a bas relief on outside of the The Bohemian Club building in San Francisco. The club was founded in the 1th century as a place for local businessmen to set aside Dull Care and engage in theatrical and sexual Hi-Jinks, so the image -- of a spider and the words weaving spiders come not here -- warns members to leave their financial schemes outside the precincts.


Why is the spider supposed to bring good luck in money matters? I think it is because the spider in its web is believed to attract its prey; thus the spider amulet is believed to attract money to the bearer. In short, Europeans seem to have used spider amulets in the same way that African-Americans use a pair of magnetic lodestones to draw money or Mexicans use horseshoe amulets accompanied by pictures of San Martin Caballero as symbolic horseshoe magnets to attract money. (Notable styles of Mexican money-magnets include small horseshoe package amulets, El Secreto de la Virtuosa Herradura wall hangings, and the unusual Snow Globe Pyramid of Luck.)


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Like many other beliefs centered in animal lore, the luckiness attached to the spider has diminished during this century, probably because urbanization has rendered our environs virtually free of species other than human beings. Still, some money-magic does yet adhere to the spider, even among the computer-using classes. For instance, from the United Kingdom, Shona McNeill writes


There is a relic of this belief in my family -- there is a species of tiny black spider, that we call the Money Spider. If one walks across your palm, it will bring good luck in money.


Villiers noted that in France during the 10s, the sight of a spider in the house is not fortunate in the forenoon, but if you see it in the afternoon, you may certainly expect a present, the value of the gift increasing according to the lateness of the hour.


In a similar vein, my mother, Liselotte Erlanger Glozer, recounts the following German verse about finding spiders in the house at different times of day, which she learned as a child in Bavaria, in the early 10s


Spinne am Morgen


bringt Kummer und Sorgen


Spinne am Nachmittag


bringt Freude am dritten Tag


Spinne am Abend


erquickend und labend


Her non-rhyming translation of this verse is


Spider in the morning


brings grief and sorrow


Spider in the afternoon


brings joy on the third day


Spider in the evening


refreshes and nourishes


Elizabeth Villiers wrote, The idea that to kill a spider will bring bad luck is common still, and most housewives, while destroying the web, will carefully lift the spider and put it out of doors. That killing a spider is followed by monetary loss is the belief in some parts of the country, thus particularizing the kind of ill luck to be expected. But to see a spider is fortunate so long as it is not hurt.





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Saturday, July 28, 2012

Fall

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The top of the tower was no more than ten meters from me, through the powerful distortion of a lens built by fear and trepidation, the summit seemed insurmountably distant. My fist step onto the ladder did nothing to assuage my uncertainties, the coarse sandpaper matting grinding against the water-softened skin on the bottom of my feet. As the climbing ensued I began to look around the area, noticing with mild amusement how ridiculous and out of place the large blue splotch appeared within the spider-webbing gridlock of traffic surrounding the facility. I continued to look about as I climbed the ladder, left foot then right foot, look left and look right, my hands clutching the cold steel of the ladder with such emphasis it turned my hands a curious shade of fuchsia. Upon reaching the top of the ladder, I stared straight ahead, my vision unwavering, yet unfocused. I walked to end of the board, my steps miniscule to purposely avoid covering the dreaded ground with overwhelming alacrity. The conditions at the end of the board seemed to me directly configured to panic the diver, the wind which appeared but a gentle, soothing breeze on the ground, shook the flimsy, plastic-fiber board with power not unlike that of an earthquake to my shaky, unstable legs. I took a deep breath and closed my eyes, the world vanishing under the merciful black curtains; it was now or never. I bent my knees slowly, my body storing its potential energy like a coiling spring that would in less than a second rocket into the air. I released the tension in my knees and leaped into the air, wind rushing through my ears causing an sharp howl, cold breath filling my lungs, eyes stinging from the harsh wind, fear has vanished completely from my mind in the split second of airborne nirvana. I sank to the water, limbs flailing like a rag-doll, and slapped the water, a sharp sting spreading a swift numbness through the impact spot on my legs, my body suddenly warm in the water, leaving nothing in my wake but a splash of water that had been roughly displaced by the foreign body.


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Wednesday, July 25, 2012

what makes caoimhe and stacey so sexy?

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well where can i start huh?! there is so much to write about. first of all we are the hottest piece of ass in this god for saken school and we have two of the most beautifulist boyfriends ever called liam and connor. we really think we are beautiful and you know we are too. we have the cutest lil smiles and the best green eyes. Pretty green eyes we worte that song too and we should of been in the video cuz our eyes are greenier than the girl in the video.... we are really smart people and very sophisticated and well trained. if you want to contact us email us on Caoimhez@hotmail.com and Stacey_Laffs@hotmaail.com. well boys and girls if you want any tips on how to be sexy and beautiful like us then email us so we can email you back and sicken you that you shall never be like us ha ha ha ha ha ha ha haa ha ha aha ha ah aha ha ha ha ah ah ah ah ah ah ah ah ah ah ah abnj ju bw rikr brkh ruh jn ur u jf i ij kiej erjg klrej orn uerh ;oej kjr oerjg ;ijg ajkghnknkj j nj h nj h u i kokp o hiu bi ni gbgu b d s s s d d f fdfd f df d fd fdf df df df df df f df df d fd f d d fd f f f f f f g g g ggg ggg gg ggg g g g g gg h s s s s s dfsf fsf fs s f fs f fs sfs f fs fsf ff fs fs fs fs ss f[slo jni hsbufhjfsm fu fgbhnf f juhfsu hf u fgth jfkj hbfi su ofiu sfi u fgu upf ihgsfsi f uifo f 8 f0 ifois fs osi0 sfo sf sf oisf isfi ofi osi ofi fo fio fis fi soif osi fosi foios fi sf oisi f sf sf sf sf s fsf s f i got my information from our sexy brains......


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Tuesday, July 24, 2012

Evaliation Essay

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ISDN vs. Cable


The Internet is a network of networks that interconnects computers around the world, supporting both business and residential users. In 14, a multimedia Internet application known as the World Wide Web became popular. The higher bandwidth needs of this application have highlighted the limited Internet access speeds available to residential users. Even at 56 Kilobits per second (Kbps)�the fastest residential access commonly available at the time of this writing�the transfer of graphical images can be frustratingly slow. My paper examines two enhancements to existing residential communications infrastructure Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) and cable television networks upgraded to pass bi-directional digital traffic (Cable Modems). It analyzes the potential of each enhancement to deliver Internet access to residential users. It validates the hypothesis that upgraded cable networks can deliver residential Internet access more cost-effectively, while offering a broader range of services.


When a home is connected to the Internet, residential communications infrastructure serves as the last mile of the connection between the home computer and the rest of the computers on the Internet. This paper describes the Internet technology involved in that connection. This paper does not discuss other aspects of Internet technology in detail. Rather, it focuses on the services that need to be provided for home computer users to connect to the Internet.


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ISDN and upgraded cable networks will each provide different functionality (e.g. type and speed of access) and cost profiles for Internet connections. It might seem simple enough to figure out which option can provide the needed level of service for the least cost, and declare that option better. A key problem with this approach is that it is difficult to define exactly the needed level of service for an Internet connection. The requirements depend on the applications being run over the connection, but these applications are constantly changing. As a result, so are the costs of meeting the applications requirements.


Until about twenty years ago, human conversation was by far the dominant application running on the telephone network. The network was consequently optimized to provide the type and quality of service needed for conversation. Telephone traffic engineers measured aggregate statistical conversational patterns and sized telephone networks accordingly. Telephonys well-defined and stable service requirements are reflected in the -- rule of thumb relied on by traffic engineers the average voice call lasts three minutes, the user makes an average of three call attempts during the peak busy hour, and the call travels over a bidirectional KHz channel.


In contrast, data communications are far more difficult to characterize. Data transmissions are generated by computer applications. Not only do existing applications change frequently (e.g. because of software upgrades), but entirely new categories�such as Web browsers�come into being quickly, adding different levels and patterns of load to existing networks. Researchers can barely measure these patterns as quickly as they are generated, let alone plan future network capacity based on them.


The one generalization that does emerge from studies of both local and wide-


area data traffic over the years is that computer traffic is bursty. It does not flow in constant streams; rather, the level of traffic varies widely over almost any measurement time scale. Dynamic bandwidth allocations are therefore preferred for data traffic, since static allocations waste unused resources and limit the flexibility to absorb bursts of traffic.


This requirement addresses traffic patterns, but it says nothing about the absolute level of load. How can we evaluate a system when we never know how much capacity is enough? In the personal computing industry, this problem is solved by defining enough to be however much I can afford today, and relying on continuous price-performance improvements in digital technology to increase that level in the near future. Since both of the infrastructure upgrade options rely heavily on digital technology, another criteria for evaluation is the extent to which rapidly advancing technology can be immediately reflected in improved service offerings. Cable networks satisfy these evaluation criteria more effectively than telephone networks because


• Coaxial cable is a higher quality transmission medium than twisted copper wire pairs of the same length. Therefore, fewer wires, and consequently fewer pieces of associated equipment, need to be installed and maintained to provide the same level of aggregate bandwidth to a neighborhood. The result should be cost savings and easier upgrades.


• Cables shared bandwidth approach is more flexible at allocating any particular level of bandwidth among a group of subscribers. Since it does not need to rely as much on forecasts of which subscribers will sign up for the service, the cable architecture can adapt more readily to the actual demand that materializes.


• Telephonys dedication of bandwidth to individual customers limits the peak (i.e. burst) data rate that can be provided cost-effectively. In contrast, the dynamic sharing enabled by cables bus architecture can, if the statistical aggregation properties of neighborhood traffic cooperate, give a customer access to a faster peak data rate than the expected average data rate.





The key question in providing residential Internet access is what kind of network technology to use to connect the customer to the Internet for residential Internet delivered over the cable plant; the answer is broadband LAN technology. This technology allows transmission of digital data over one or more of the 6 MHz channels of a CAT 5 cable. Since video and audio signals can also be transmitted over other channels of the same cable, broadband LAN technology can co-exist with currently existing services.


The speed of a cable LAN is described by the bit rate of the modems used to send data over it. As this technology improves, cable LAN speeds may change, but at the time of this writing, cable modems range in speed from 500 Kbps to 10 Mbps, or roughly 17 to 40 times the bit rate of the familiar 56 Kbps telephone modem. This speed represents the peak rate at which a subscriber can send and receive data, during the periods of time when the medium is allocated to that subscriber. It does not imply that every subscriber can transfer data at that rate simultaneously. The effective average bandwidth seen by each subscriber depends on how busy the LAN is. Therefore, a cable LAN


will appear to provide a variable bandwidth connection to the Internet Full-time connections.


Cable LAN bandwidth is allocated dynamically to a subscriber only when he has traffic to send. When he is not transferring traffic, he does not consume transmission resources. Consequently, he can always be connected to the Internet Point of Presence without requiring an expensive dedication of transmission resources.


In contrast to the shared-bus architecture of a cable LAN, the telephone network requires the residential Internet provider to maintain multiple connection ports in order to serve multiple customers simultaneously. Thus, the residential Internet provider faces problems of multiplexing and concentration of individual subscriber lines very similar to those faced in telephone Central Offices.


The point-to-point telephone network gives the residential Internet provider an architecture to work with that is fundamentally different from the cable plant. Instead of multiplexing the use of LAN transmission bandwidth as it is needed, subscribers multiplex the use of dedicated connections to the Internet provider over much longer time intervals. As with ordinary phone calls, subscribers are allocated fixed amounts of bandwidth for the duration of the connection. Each subscriber that succeeds in becoming active (i.e. getting connected to the residential Internet provider instead of getting a busy signal) is guaranteed a particular level of bandwidth until hanging up the call.


Although the predictability of this connection-oriented approach is appealing, its major disadvantage is the limited level of bandwidth that can be economically dedicated to each customer. At most, an ISDN line can deliver 144 Kbps to a subscriber, roughly four times the bandwidth available with POTS. This rate is both the average and the peak data rate. A subscriber needing to burst data quickly, for example to transfer a large file or engage in a video conference, may prefer a shared-bandwidth architecture, such as a cable LAN, that allows a higher peak data rate for each individual subscriber. A subscriber who needs a full-time connection requires a dedicated port on a terminal server. This is an expensive waste of resources when the subscriber is connected but not transferring data.


Cable-based Internet access can provide the same average bandwidth and higher peak bandwidth more economically than ISDN. For example, 500 Kbps Internet access over cable can provide the same average bandwidth and four times the peak bandwidth of ISDN access for less than half the cost per subscriber. In the technology reference model of the case study, the 4 Mbps cable service is targeted at organizations. According to recent benchmarks, the 4 Mbps cable service can provide the same average bandwidth and thirty-two times the peak bandwidth of ISDN for only 0% more cost per subscriber. When this reference model is altered to target 4 Mbps service to individuals instead of organizations at 4 Mbps cable access costs 40% less per subscriber than ISDN. The economy of the cable-based approach is most evident when comparing the per-subscriber cost per bit of peak bandwidth $0.0 for Individual 4 Mbps, $0.60 for Organizational 4 Mbps, and $ for the 500 Kbps cable services�versus close to $16 for ISDN. However, the potential penetration of cable- based access is constrained in many cases (especially for the 500 Kbps service) by limited upstream channel bandwidth. While the penetration limits are quite sensitive to several of the input parameter assumptions, the cost per subscriber is surprisingly less.


The paragraph above breaks down the costs of each approach into their separate components, they also provide insight into the match between what follows naturally from the technology and how existing business entities are organized. For example, the prices show that subscriber equipment is the most significant component of average cost. When subscribers are willing to pay for their own equipment, the access providers capital costs are low. This business model has been successfully adopted by SBC, but it is foreign to the cable industry. The resulting closed market structure for cable subscriber equipment has not been as effective as the open market for ISDN equipment at fostering the development of needed technology. In addition, commercial development of both cable and ISDN Internet access has been hindered by monopoly control of the needed infrastructure�whether manifest as high ISDN tariffs or simple lack of interest from cable operators.





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Wednesday, July 18, 2012

The Paintings that Made Caravaggio

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The Paintings that Made Caravaggio


Caravaggio was born Michelangelo Merisi in 1571 in Lombardy most likely in Caravaggio. When he was thirteen Caravaggio was apprenticed in Milan to a painter named Simone Peterzano who was a pupil of Titian. Titian, who famous works are displayed at Capodimonte. During this time Caravaggio was able to develop his version of mannerism. In 150 he went to Rome ready to use his practices and skills. At this time the prevailing artistic style in Italy was mannerism which refers to most sixteenth-century art.


Mannerism is recognized for its concern with developing and varying styles of Raphael, Michelangelo and other masters of the 1500’s into a style that shows everyday events as spectacular and important. An example is the Accademia of the Carracci which helped to strengthen the connection with Raphael in order to continue to reinforce a classical style that would adapt to the taste of the wealthy or those with lofty tastes. The artists that followed these ideas were called Emilian and included Domenichino, Giocanni Lanfranco, Guercino, Guido Reni, and of course Annibale Carracci. This style was widely accepted and desired in Rome.


Caravaggio’s painting style also arose as a reaction to mannerism. It was very contradictory to the mannerism as Caravaggio went in the direction of naturalism. Caravaggio was able to create a new path for other artists. It is important to note however that the influence of Raphael and Michelangelo are very visible in Caravaggio’s work and that he did not disdain or criticize the current style. Other influence on Caravaggio’s style was his training in Lombardy where he had as a model Lombard art along with late gothic art which is distinguished by a particular attention to nature. In terms of traditional techniques Caravaggio used the relation between objects and natural and artificial light and the ability of color to construct and define. The genius in his work I believe rests in his ability to master the effect of light so well that the objects in his painting appear lifelike.


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Caravaggio’s works are commonly separated into four periods. The Milanese period which reflects the training of Peterzano and the influence of Savoldo, Moretto and Lotto. Next comes the first Roman years consisting of his works completed from 15 to 15. During this time he generally painted small pictures until he caught the attention of Francesco del Monte who bought some of his paintings and later in 15 gave Caravaggio his first commission. This was the paintings in the Contarelli Chapel of Saint Luigi de’ Francesi. These include the Calling of Saint Matthew (which is one of my favorites), the Martyrdom of Saint Matthew, and Saint Matthew and the Angel. His third period is noted for the extravagant commissions he received from the Roman churches. This period ended abruptly due to his flight from Rome in 1606. Afterwards the last 4 years of his life were very hectic while he moved from place to place. He painted mostly for churches before dying in 1610 of malaria on his way back to Rome.


When he was just over twenty he went to Rome where he worked for Cavalier d’Arpino. There he painted primarily still life of flower and fruit. His first famous independent works are done before 155 which include the Sick Bacchus and the Still-Life with Flowers and Fruit both of which are now at the Borghese Gallery. The Sick Bacchus is portrait he painted of himself. The first aspect that is apparent of the painting is the unmodified and objectively painted boy. His characteristics are in no way improved or altered by Caravaggio. Secondly, the fruits and leaves on the window ledge and in the boys hand show incredible realism in their surface texture. Similarly in his Youth with Flower Basket the same technique to portray texture can be seen. What I believe makes this painting even more amazing is his ability to accurately portray the gaze of the young boy. Similarly in Youth Bitten by a green Lizard, in the Longhi Collection in Florence, we see the vivid reaction of the boy. What is most interesting and beautiful about this work is the glass vase in front of the boy. The light inside the vase looks like an actually photograph accompanied by the reflection of the window inside the vase.


With these paintings Caravaggio was able to create his reputation and attract the attention of Cardinal Francesco Maria Del Monte. Del Monte had eight paintings of Caravaggio, of which five are dated from his second period which shows that he was revered at an early age by famous collectors. His Basket of Fruit which is in the Pinacoteca Ambrosiana in Milan displays his ability to paint the different textures of fresh and old fruit. Similarly in the same painting he contrasts green and browning leaves. The interpretation that I take from this painting is that life is cyclical and that nature is at different stages of life. Some of the fruit are ripe while others are only a few days away, versus those that are past their prime. Another wonderful display of texture can be seen in the Bacchus. The way the wine glass is painted with the ripples towards the sides allows me to think that the boy might have indulged a bit too much of wine that he cannot keep a steady hand.


Aside from this style of painting, in 155 Caravaggio for the first time took on religious subjects which were most popular at the time and genre scenes which he would help popularize. Saint Francis in Ecstasy which is located in Wadsworth Atheneum is a very religious painting which shows traces of Peterzano’s influence and that of Lombard. In addition some of his brushstrokes visible in this painting were learned by studying Venetian paintings. What Caravaggio focused a great deal on is the conception of color as a structural element which goes back to texture and how he was able to portray it by changing the tint of the color.


Martha and Mary Magdalen where she is being scolded for her vanity shows Caravaggio’s preference to illustrate a specific moment instead of event. The expressions of the two women are captured in an instance and does not appear as a long drawn out conversation.


Another characteristic of Caravaggio is to paint genre scenes. One of his favorites is that of cards, a subject that he is very familiar with, which can be seen in I Bari. The other theme shown in two similar paintings which were painted only a few years apart shows a Gypsy reading the palm of a youth while removing the ring from his finger. Both are called the Fortune Teller but one is found in the Louvre and the other in Musei Capitolini. What I think is noteworthy is the way Caravaggio painted the Gypsy’s intent on her face. You can just barely make out the slight smirk that she is trying to hold inside from the young man. Caravaggio was also very reluctant to focus on subject matter of the past. He believed that the subject matter of painting should not be drawn from ancient or modern history. Furthermore it shouldn’t be celebrative or commemorative. A painting shouldn’t have moral lessons or set up an example. An artist should not study old masters in order copy a certain style. Caravaggio claimed that his lessons are not drawn from history but from his own life. According to his conception, the painter must be a careful observer of what exits around him and not a student of preexisting technical and cultural traditions. At first this approach was not accepted very well. However Caravaggio’s outlook became increasingly overpowering and it eventually influenced every artistic trend in Europe. Bellori, a writer who was most critical of Caravaggio’s writes “Merisi knew no master other than the model.”


In the last years of the sixteenth century, Caravaggio was gradually gaining acceptance among a select audience which translated in the improvement of his social and economical position. During this time he made some of his most fascinating creations such as Mary Magdalen which is in the Galleria Doria Phamphili in Rome. Bellori says “he painted a girl on a chair with her hand in her lap, drying her hair; he painted her in an interior and by adding an ointment jar and jewelry he imagined her as Magdalen.” What this quote reveals is that painting was not planned from the beginning as an exemplary description of Magdalen, but how the identification is almost made afterward at the moment when Caravaggio added the ointment jar and jewelry. The way that I interpret Caravaggio’s intention in Mary Magdalen (taking in consideration the fact that he claimed to not paint history) is that his painting is not of Mary Magdalen. His painting is in fact of a women that would be recognized by the observer as Mary Magdalen.


Saint Catherine of Alexandria part of the Von Thyssen Collection is of a female figure just as in Mary Magdalena in an interior without any architectural illusions. The image appears as a blend of royalty and nobility (seen in the clothes) with the face of a common Roman woman. The detail of the cloth on the woman is part of the centerpiece of the painting. Many followers of Caravaggio have attempted to copy this style but had little success.


In the Rest During the Flight into Egypt in the Galeria Doria Pamphili in Rome the atmosphere that is seen is that of relaxation and gentleness. To this I like to credit the orangish tint that covers the whole painting. Added to this is the calm eye of the donkey, the patient expression on Joseph’s face and the understanding concentration of the angel. All of this is done to help put the baby to sleep. In the background it can be seen the landscape that Caravaggio chose to include, again standing firm to his naturalism. What I also notice is the variation in the seasonality of the plants. Some leaves are already brown while others are still green. Again this shows his understanding of seasonality and time.


The exact opposite of feelings is created in Judith that is located in the Barberini Palace in Rome. Instead of relaxation I see tension and instead of serenity there is anger. The tension is visible on Magdalen as she musters all her energy to slice with her sword. Even more apparent is the release of tension vivid on the expression of Magdalen’s husband. The malice and anger is seen on the old woman’s evil stare of approval. The realness of the painting is best described by a passing English traveler. She says “This picture is too well done; it struck me directly, that it must have been taken from life. The idea threw me into a trembling, and made me very sick; producing the same effects on me, that perhaps I might have experienced from the presents of [a] real execution. This is Caravaggio’s most brutal display of aggression. The key in achieving such a vivid display lies in the extremity of all aspects of the painting, the redness of the blood, the sharpness of the sword, the wide opening of the mouth, and the dark stair of the servant.


The Abraham and Isaac in the Uffizi which is dated around the close of the sixteenth century due to its similar style to that of The Rest During the Flight into Egypt. It has the similar yellowish tint along with the inclusion of a detailed landscape. This episode draws a parallel with the son of Abraham and the Son of God both who are innocent victims. Although this can be said what I noticed first is that the son of Abraham is struggling as opposed to Christ who did not. What is most important to note about this painting is the way the distant objects in the purposely-blurry landscape fade or melt into each other.


The reason I have mentioned The Abraham and Isaac and Mary Magdalen is to talk about the aesthetic of exclamation by which Caravaggio is able to create a violent atmosphere full of energy and tension. Another painting that uses the same approach is the famous Head of Medusa in the Uffizi gallery. The most amazing part of this painting is the representation of the hair as snakes. Additionally it should be noted the originality of the screaming head as it is stuck on an ancient shield.


The majority of Caravaggio’s works include at most three figures with a background that seems to be of little interest to the figures that prominently stand out. In contrast the Calling of Saint Matthew has seven figures while the Martyrdom of Saint Matthew has thirteen. Despite there numbers the figures are considerable smaller in size allowing for the display of the background. Another novelty is that of echelons that have never been present in Caravaggio’s works previously. The manner with which he achieves this is not through the architecture of the setting but from the arrangement of the figures. I find it very interesting to learn that Caravaggio was not set on the final version of the painting immediately as he begun it despite their appearance as if time was stopped. With the use of X-ray analysis it has been proven that Caravaggio among other artists sketched on their canvas a different idea. After changing their mind they simply painted over their original idea and created their current masterpieces. For example in the calling of Saint Matthew originally the figure of Christ stood alone and was not covered as is in the final version, by that of Saint Peter. The addition of Saint Peter served in showing that he is the mediator between God and man. As Christ is raising his hand so is Saint Peter but without the same power of command. This is also to remind that Saint Peter would be the first pope. What is different about this painting when compared to the Counter Reformation is that this important event is represented as an ordinary day event. It shows two people that have just come in and asked to speak to someone that is inside. Saint Matthew is simply pointing to himself asking, is it me you want to speak to.


In the Martyrdom of Saint Matthew we see the complexity that Caravaggio is capable of. This is one of the few times where the painting is extremely busy. With the help of X-ray analysis it is shown that originally there were only three figures in the entire painting compared to the current thirteen. The multitude of figures shows Raphael influence on Caravaggio. With the same technology it was discovered that Caravaggio changed his mind rather quickly of the fate of the painting and made changes directly on the canvas without redrawing his plans on paper. This painting is also known for its innovation and its numerous explicit and implicit symbols and meanings. Looking at the echelons we see the three partially nude figures in the foreground. There are six figures on the left in the background that show different state of minds and are also grouped in couples. Then there is the angel on top with the boy underneath him. Matthew is on the floor while the killer is on top.


The middle piece of the three Saint Matthew paintings is Saint Matthew and the Angel. The original was first rejected because it made Saint Matthew appear to be learning how to write. As a result Vincenzo Giustiniani offered to acquire it even thought it was later destroyed during the Second World War. The second version that Caravaggio completed featured the Angel hanging down from a cloud while counting on his fingers the arguments that he is telling Saint Matthew to write and develop.


After the competition of the three wall paintings for San Luigi dei Francesi Caravaggio was commissioned for two more paintings; the Crucifixion of Saint Peter and the Conversion of Saint Paul by Monsignor Tiberio Cerasi for their chapel in the Santa Maria del Popolo. In the Crucifixion of Saint Peter there are three men and Saint Peter but without a landscape. What I take from this is that Caravaggio does not want to give to much importance to the event as it is a sad one. Comparing this to Lady Magdalena, both are deaths but Saint Peter’s is not taken to extremity. The colors of the painting are subdued, Peter’s mouth is not wide open, the amount of blood is limited and the expressions of the men are hidden as to not glorify the moment and maybe to show that they are simply carrying out their duty.


One of my other favorite works is Conversion on the Way to Damascus which is also found in Santa Maria del Popolo. Here you can see the use of light as it is used to draw your attention to Saul. It is coming from the upper right corner where the rays are visible. The servant and the horse are more in the background. I understand this as his are reaching up towards God accepting His will. If it was not known otherwise it would be thought this is simply a man that fell of his horse while the servant is calming the horse down and taking it back to its stall. The use of hand gestures as is seen in the Conversion on the Way to Damascus is also present in Supper in Emmaus. Here is the moment of the disciple’s recognition of Christ. Their hands are away from their body as if they were about to move.


As many of Caravaggio’s works, Madonna dei Pellegrini in Sant’Agostino in Rome was criticized and taken down days after it was mounted. One of the “problems” of the painting was the pilgrims dirty feet. The size of the barely noticeable halos was also not approved along with the fact that the Child and the Madonna were looking down at the pilgrims. It is also enough to mention that the model for the Madonna was also a lover of Caravaggio’s among others.


It is only best to end with the only mural painting by Caravaggio. This is the ceiling painted in oils for the alchemy room of Cardinal del Monte which we saw in the Villa Boncompagni Ludovisi. It was probably created between 157 and 1600. What is special about this fresco is that it is done in oil. Caravaggio probably did not like much to fresco because it took away from his ability to change what he had painted previously. With the use of oil however he was able to come to a compromise and create this masterpiece.








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Monday, July 16, 2012

Strengths of nokia

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Based on an analysis of Nokia’s value chain, that is its various characteristics, strengths and weaknesses discuss how they can be a dominant competitor in the cellular phone industry.


At this present time, Nokia is a very dominant force in the communications market. One way to determine how strong a force they are is to carry out a SWOT analysis, which consists of a list of their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.


Strengths


• Introduction of new products.


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• Broad knowledge base from many standards.


• Large home market and 5% of global market.


• Roaming agreements.


• Investment in research and development (R&D).


• Concurrent engineering ensures quick delivery.


• Incorporation of recycling & material re-use in product life cycle.


• Human resource management � knowledge transfer and flexibility.


• Business partnerships.


• Locked into suppliers.


• Nokia brand stands for quality.


• Attack markets.


• Internal IT systems.


• Products in each market segment.


• Group effort therefore large knowledge base.





Weaknesses


• Difficult to make transition from national to global brand name.


• Distribution networks not well established.


• Home market is a limited size.


• Finance needs to be carefully planned.


• Initial low brand recognition.


• Brand identification.


• Low profit margins.


• Challenge of innovation.


• Skills for emerging technology.


• Volatile markets.


• Dependence on suppliers.


• After sales support.


• Late into market for G phones.


Oppertunities


• Products


o First to market.


o Internet.


o Business to business.


o Substitute products.


o Network infrastructure.


• Develop software � more features.


• High growth in consumer market.


• Global competitor.


• M-commerce.


• Mergers.


• Product replacement.


• G / Out sourcing.


Threats


• Competing with very large phone companies.


• Regulation � lack of standardisation.


• Dependant on service providers.


• Health issue � radiation.


• Environmental issues.


• Rate of growth with short product life cycle.


• R&D is in very large demand.


• Low cost producers.


• Losing best people.


• Internal work ethic.


• Quality.


• Product life cycle.








The value chain consists of primary activities and support activities. These are no different in Nokia’s case. The primary activities are inbound logistics, operations, outbound logistics, sales and marketing and customer service. The support activities are firm infrastructure, human resource management, technology development and procurement.


Primary Activities.


Inbound Logistics.


Nokia try to re-use and recycle their products wherever possible. They also make suppliers pay a penalty for late deliveries. Nokia are also tied to a production schedule. All of these are aimed at the quick and smooth production of their products.


Operations.


Nokia try to keep the environment priority at production sites. This is for the long-term benefit of everyone. Most of the manufacturing at Nokia is outsourced. They get a lot of their parts from Motorola and AT&T. However, Nokia produces the electrical components. At present, Nokia manufacture across the globe. By using local production facilities and joint ventures allows fast development of products. Nokia also do a lot of research and development at this stage to guarantee quality and assist in product maintenance.


Outbound Logistics.


Outbound logistics are also a very important part of the value chain for Nokia. Operations are based on a decentralised structure and a measured control. They also collect finished products from sites across the globe. All scheduling and ordering is done via operators. Storage costs are very important the lower the storage cost the more profit the company makes.


Marketing & Sales.


Nokia use a distribution of networks to sell their products. They use the likes of Vodafone and O stores to distribute their handsets. The different phone networks do a lot of advertising for Nokia handsets, as it is in their interests to attract customers before the other networks do, this is good for Nokia as its free advertising for them. Where you would see most of Nokia’s advertising is in newspapers and on billboards. Nokia also use the internet for advertising as a lot of people use the internet daily. As phone networks make the majority of their money from the calls alone, the aren’t too bothered with not making money on the handsets, so they often do promotions like free connections or free handsets. They also subsidise the handsets, so Nokia get more money than the consumer actually pays. Nokia are a dominant force in the market because the capture all areas in the market, from business use to leisure use.


Customer Service.


Nokia offer many services to assist their customers, one service that Nokia offers on their products is a 1-month warranty. There are also upgrades available on all handsets. Nokia use there own Nokia stores for customer services rather than sales. Club Nokia is a membership available at these stores, if you are a member and your phone breaks down they will loan you the same handset while your handset is being repaired. This service isn’t available at any other stores. Nokia use their website for most of their customers support services.


Support Activities.


Firm Infrastructure.


Nokia tend to concentrate on environmental management. They also have a lot of alliances. Along with these the mergers, acquisitions and business partnerships, Nokia have a very strong infrastructure.


Human Resource Management.


Human resource has a major part in Nokia, they have a continuous training program and they are always recruiting new staff. New ideas are the basis of Nokia’s success in the market, and it is no surprise that one in four of Nokia’s staff are employed in the research and development department.


Technology Development.


Nokia are constantly creating new designs and new technology, even after a phone has been released, Nokia develop new and improved versions of the software. There is also a lot of research of the market and the customer’s expectations and wants. Nokia use technology to their advantage when it comes to advertising, sales, support and customer feedback.


Procurement.


As Nokia outsource a lot of their development, it reduces the amount of buildings and machinery the need to maintain. Nokia have OEM agreements with external suppliers.


Sponsorship also plays a major part in their company.


How can Nokia improve their supply chain management systems?


Nokia need to manage their supply chain because mobile phones have a short life cycle and with the huge product variety available. Nokia need to ensure the supply chain is designed to reduce market mediation costs. The aim is to get supply on par with demand. If supply is greater than demand they will have excess stock, but if demand is greater than supply they will lose out on valuable sales. Nokia need as much flexibility as possible when it comes to production. They need to be able to act fast if an unexpected demand occurs.





When choosing suppliers the important factors Nokia need to consider are, the speed at which they will be able to supply, the quality of their products, the cost of their products and most importantly the flexibility of switching products they offer.


To improve their supply chain Nokia need to identify a strategy for managing uncertainty in demand. Although Nokia phones come in an array of different sizes, weights, functions and standards, if they could share common components in their products, it would make production more flexible. Another way of improving their supply chain is to reduce lead times. This can be carried out by more orders received direct via the Internet or having direct ordering systems with agents.


If Nokia located production facilities close to their main market it would lead to faster and cheaper distribution. By producing their products close to the market, Nokia could distribute direct to their agents and customers. This would lead to shortening delivery cycles and faster development. Nokia’s policy of employing mergers, acquisitions and business partners as a means to extend their geographic scope reinforces these supply chain management strategies. It is also important that they share info such as production requirements, design databases, etc.


How can E-commerce assist Nokia in building a competitive advantage in sales and service?


With all the new technology at Nokia’s disposal it is important that they use it to their advantage. One way that it is very beneficial is their website. Having a well designed website allows them to display new products, display product details and display product features. Their website can be used to make sales and acquire customer profiles and real time customer information. The website also gives Nokia the option to display pricelists and information about new product developments.


Nokia could also use expert systems to share expertise with retailers and agents by allowing them to suggest a configuration that would satisfy customer requirements. E-commerce can also be used for after sales service. It can be used to monitor performance; hence, detecting any futures bottlenecks and develop methods for improving network performance.





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Saturday, July 14, 2012

Variuos

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... Greek and Medieval ideology of hierarchies - where one being is higher on the scale than others. Indeed this scale is known as The Great Chain of Being, where every entity was placed on a scale with God (an entity that exists necessarily, and which is the creator of all other entities) at the top and non-existence at the bottom. The higher up the scale an entity is the more perfections it was thought it have, God being at the top has all perfections. The definition of perfection therefore indicates that existence is a perfection by definition. Those at the bottom of the scale, have no perfections, the first living entity will moreover have one thing that those on the bottom do not, clearly existence. God being at the top of the chain has all perfections, those that are apparent in the lowest forms of life to those a rung below him.


The ontological argument has received considerable criticism from some of the worlds leading philosophers. Thomas Aquinas opposed Anslems idea that God exist based on the unproved knowledge that this entity was perfect. He claimed that Anslem could not claim to know the characterises of God before proving a God existed, the personality of this entity should and would come after the existence of the entity had been confirmed and validated. He suggested that the existence of ...


refore you have described it all e.g. instead of explaining the existence of the world, you explain everything in it, thus explaining the world. This therefore means that if the question of God seems to be something which you cant explain all you need do is d ne, which emphasis the Christian believing in Jesus as saviour and Lord. This service brings Christs followers together in unity. The Lords Super is a way of saying that Christians unite and obey what Jesus said at the Last Supper. The Roman Catholic Chuch uses the name The Mass. It is Latin and means ended or finished. To Christians the word Mass symbolises the special meaning given by the Roman Catholic Church to its central act of worship.


Some Christians dont celebrate the Eucharist very often. Jehovahs Witnesses celebrate it once a year. Presbyterians Churches used to hold the service about four times a year and Congregational Churches twice a month, but after the joined form of the United Reformed Church they asjusted the amount of times of the service.


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The Methodist Church has a Sunday Service which allows the sacrament with or without the sacred meal. The Church of England celebrates once a week. The Roman Catholic Church and Orthodox Church celebrate daily. The different was that Christians celebrate the Eucharist depends on the way they understand the meal. Different names they have tend to hint what the emphasis that is given.


Churches that have altar-centred worship, have a priest or minister, to carry out the service. In some churches onl ...


otestant model of biblical interpretation. In this sense Goldmans research lacked validity, lacked depth and was one sided, it is important to remember that Piagets work had its own criticisms and weaknesses as well which Goldman did not consider. In Goldmans research it is unclear whether the concept of stages is intended to function primarily as a descriptive device or whether it is intended to have some explanatory role. No account is given in his research of how development from one stage to the next takes place, yet this is crucial if the stage concept is to have and significance.


There are also problems with Goldmans interviews design and content analysis. The interview design is problematic because of its selectivity and subjectivity. Goldmans interview design can be criticized also due to the nature of the stories and the questions that he used. Mathews (166) and Godin (168) suggest that the three biblical stories used by Goldman were particularly difficult narratives and that they were not representative texts from which you can make generalisations about religious thinking. Another problem is that Goldman modified the narratives for his own use in the interviews and by doing this he decontextualised the stories and shifted the emphasis of the biblical texts.


Goldman in his research calls attention to both the wasteful effort of teaching the Bible too early and also the difficulties this makes for children of limited development. He does not however believe that no Bible teaching should occur before the age of twelve - this is a widespread misconception of Goldmans work. What he actually believes is that before the age of twelve there should be a dramatic reduction of biblical material in syllabuses and he believes that the way the material is used is paramount. Goldman regards the Bible as the major source of Christianity for adults, he says that it is written by adults for adults, it is plainly not a childrens book. He believes that by inviting children to become familiar with the Bible too early results in boredom and confusion. Instead he thinks we should try to help chil ...





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Friday, July 13, 2012

Fightclub

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Fight Club tells the story of an Everyman who wanders from the safety of his nine-to-five life into a no-mans-land of violence and social insurrection. The protagonist, played by Edward Norton, is a white-collar cipher who joins an underground boxing society and engages in barefisted fighting in a desperate attempt to recover his sense of manhood. How did he lose it? Attaining the American Dream--the right job, home, and all the other trappings of affluence--caused him to lose any sense of himself as a strong, powerful, individualistic man with a purpose who is in control of his own destiny. At times, Fight Club plays like a fictionalized version of Stiffed. It closely follows Susan Faludis thesis that the masculinity crisis results from men participating in a dominant ornamental culture that robs any real, substantial meaning from their identities. The fight club becomes the means to prove and demonstrate their masculinity to themselves and each other.


As directed by David Fincher, Fight Club is a satire on both the dehumanizing effects of the corporate/consumer culture that forms the backbone of the American Dream, and the absurd excesses of the mens movement. The narrator is a wage slave in a nameless American city whose voiceover discloses a sardonic, dissenting, but impotent interior life beneath his subdued exterior conformity. Hes nameless, but lets call him Jack (as the film credits list him) after his penchant for ironically identifying himself with various parts of the physical and psychological anatomy (I am Jacks medulla oblongata, I am Jacks inflamed sense of rejection.) (Uhls) Finding relief from chronic insomnia by attending multiple self-help group meetings under false pretenses, Jack leads a vampiric half-life, feeding vicariously on the catharsis and suffering of others. His emasculation is so intense that he identifies most with the members of a testicular cancer support group. He reluctantly shares his perverse addiction with Marla (Helena Bonham Carter), a fellow misery tourist who equally attracts and repels him. In the course of his travels as a recall coordinator for a major auto manufacturer (a job that deeply implicates him in the casual cynicism and corruption of corporate America), he encounters and falls in with an elusive, outrageous anarchist named Tyler Durden (Brad Pitt). The two men seal a kind of unspoken pact with a spontaneous fistfight--something that becomes a regular activity. Before long, other alienated men begin to participate, and a club is founded for weekly one-on-one fight sessions. Durden also takes up with Marla, to Jacks disgust. As Durdens influence on Jack grows, he becomes an accomplice in his escalating program of subversive pranks and mischief, until the fight club morphs into a quasimilitary all-male cult with an antisocial, revolutionary agenda--a kind of surreal prole insurrection against the bourgeois values embodied by the American Dream. Interestingly, this movie is the culmination of a recurrent scenario in David Finchers previous three films repressed white masculinity thrown into crisis by the eruption of an uncontrollable force that destabilizes a carefully regulated but precarious psychosocial order. In Alien , a shaven-headed, celibate, all-male penal colony of killers that anticipates Fight Clubs cult of violent, obsolete masculinity, is disturbed first by a woman, then by a libidinously destructive organism that needs to breed. In Seven, locked in an endgame with a killer whos equal parts deranged artist and Old Testament avenger, Morgan Freemans troubled, paternal detective seems to act with the stoic understanding that an older civilization of traditional male codes, values, and reason that he defends has been submerged in a Bosch-like world of corruption and chaos. The sterile, controlled universe of Michael Douglass uptight millionaire tycoon in The Game unravels until he is stripped of everything he relies upon to define himself--though in the end, masculine power and privilege remain intact and reaffirmed by the ordeal. In Fight Club, sweeping through Jacks tidy, airless life, Tyler Durden is a galvanizing, subversive force dedicated to revolt against the inauthenticity and mediocrity of the American Dream and modern life, seeking a nihilistic exaltation of disenfranchised masculinity through abjection and destructive transgression.


Despite the extreme politics and extreme fighting, Fight Club is really about how to become a man. There is a Buddhist proverb which states that on the path to enlightenment you have to kill your parents, your god, and your teacher. Jacks quest to forge a meaningful, authentic masculine identity for himself follows a similar trajectory. Thus, the story begins when Jack is still a self-described 0-year-old boy. (Uhls) Like Stiffed, Fight Club is preoccupied with the outcomes of sons who grew up with fathers who so often seemed spectral, there and yet not there. (Faludi, 57) Jack, like the men in Stiffed, was abandoned by his father at a young age. Hes a member of a generation of men raised by women, left feeling feminized by the experience and wondering if another woman is the answer we really need. (Uhls) But Jacks fathers real betrayal is his failure to perform what Faludi describes as a fathers duty and obligation. She writes that Having a father was supposed to mean having an older man show you how the world worked and how to find your place in it...Yet the fathers...seemingly unfettered in their paternal power and authority, failed to pass the mantle, the knowledge, all that power and authority, on to their sons. (57) Jacks been told that if he gets an education, a good job, is responsible, presents himself in a certain way with his furniture, car, and clothes, then hell find happiness. Hes accomplished everything his father taught him to do, but he remains unfulfilled in spite of possessing the American Dream. So the movie introduces him at the point when Jacks figuratively killed off his father and realizes that hes wrong. But hes still caught up in the materialism and consumerism thats part and parcel of the American Dream. And then he finds a mentor in Tyler Durden, and they fly in the face of God by doing everything theyre not supposed to do--namely, inflicting pain on themselves and others. There is a particularly telling quote spoken by Durden about renouncing fathers and God for failing to point out a satisfying path to manhood Our fathers were our models for God. And, if our fathers bailed, what does that tell us about God?...You have to consider the possibility that God doesnt like you, He never wanted you. In all probability, He hates you. This is not the worst thing that can happen...We dont need him...We are Gods unwanted children, with no special place and no special attention, and so be it. (Uhls) However, when the violence spirals out of control, Jack rejects the masculine model offered by Durden, thus completing the process of maturing into a man (as described by the Buddhist proverb) by killing off his teacher.


Like Stiffed, mans enemy in Fight Club is an insidious ornamental culture saturated with commercial images of masculinity. Jack has bought into the cultures dictates about the kind of man he should be. His soul is numb and empty and, in a kind of sublimation of ancient hunter-gatherer instincts, he keeps trying to fill it by buying expensive products. When men acquire the American Dream through rampant consumerism, it can turn into a nightmare since they become hooked on maintaining the Dream at the expense of performing functional public roles that empower them as men. Were supposed to take it as an indication of the extent to which Jacks been feminized and emasculated by the affluence of the American Dream when he comments, I would flip through catalogs and wonder, What kind of dining set defines me as a person? We used to read pornography. Now it was the Horchow Collection. (Uhls) Faludi claims that the masculinity crisis is partly the result of men nowadays lacking a mission to manhood encompassed by the promises of a frontier to be claimed; a clear and evil enemy to vanquish; and an institution of brotherhood. (Faludi, 6) The phenomenon of Angry White Males going ballistic is a symptom, a reaction, a backlash against the shiny flat surface of a commercial culture, a looking glass before which men could only act out a crude semblance of masculinity. (Faludi, 7) Durden echoes her sentiment when he laments, We are the middle children of history, with no purpose or place. We have no great war, or great depression. The great war is a spiritual war. The great depression is our lives. We were raised by television to believe that wed be millionaires and movie gods and rock stars--but we wont. And were learning that fact. And were very, very pissed off.


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The fight club, an ultrasecret male society, becomes a substitute for the corporations and other traditional institutions of brotherhood that have disappointed men. Its a form of manual electro-shock therapy, a way of jolting themselves out of their numbness and reconnecting with reality. The point is not to win, but to experience maximum pain in a desperate attempt to find some shred of authenticity as a man. And as Faludi notes in Stiffed, ...what act could be more stereotypically masculine than a show of violence? (7) For these anomic men who are offered fewer and fewer meaningful occupations, beating each other up may seem like the one thing they can still excel at as men. In the film, the basement fight scenes are all shot dark and, more important, damp--with rusty water, gushing blood and other bodily fluids of less determinable origins. Its a style that signifies the contrast between the dry sterility of Jacks aboveground life and his underground one. Water, even when its polluted, is the source of life; blood, even when its recklessly spilled, is the symbol of life being fully lived. We are meant to understand that in the ecstatic, bonding blood rites, some deep atavistic warrior instinct (not quenched by living out the civilized American Dream) is finally satisfied.


Freud would have a field day with the subtext in Fight Club. The movie literally begins and then stays deep inside Jacks brain. Everything that happens in the film happens inside his consciousness--or unconscious or subconscious. The movie continually reminds us that were watching one mans illustrated interior monologue; the other characters are seen as projections of his own psyche--his desires, his fears, his frustrations. This point is driven home with the plot twist that occurs in the third act of the movie Durden, as embodied by Brad Pitt, can only be seen by Jack, who gradually becomes aware that his friend and mentor exists only as a figment of his own imagination. Tyler Durden is Jacks own id, his alter-ego, his doppelganger. Jack, although his mind is on fire with revolutionary ideas, still feels the pressure of the severe super-ego, which holds up certain norms of behaviour. (Freud, The Structure of the Unconscious) Hes so heavily indoctrinated with the corporate/consumer values of the American Dream that his guilty conscience would not let him directly act on his fantasies; consequently, he must create Durden to live them out. In sharp contrast to the drab ambiance and bland fluorescent lighting of Jacks prosaic daytime world of offices, hotels, and public spaces, Durden inhabits a disorderly realm of eccentric decay and lurid colors that suggests a shadowy subconscious underworld. Freud writes that the ego stands for reason and circumspection, while the id stands for untamed passions. (Freud, The Structure of the Unconscious) Thus, Durden is everything the repressed, mild-mannered Jack isnt, but wishes he could be--hes a projection of Jacks fantasies about masculine mastery. Durden (decked out in garish red leather and loud print shirts to signify danger, excitement, bloodlust, and a complete lack of anything resembling taste) is a volatile dude--cocky, confident, spontaneous, irrational, infantile, aggressive, antisocial, amoral, hedonistic, uncontrollable. But for all that, Jack sees Durden as his breakthrough, the voice that will finally tell him to stop defining himself with the materialism/consumerism of the American Dream You are not your job. You are not how much money you have in the bank. You are not your fucking khakis!


So much for the Freudian interpretation of Fight Club. I think it can also be argued that the film is a postmodern work. It follows the postmodernist tenet about refusing the insistence on an absolute distinction between high and popular culture. (Storey, 17) The movie questions the facade of the American Dream, with its devotion to materialism and self-improvement, and takes an anti-capitalism, anti-consumerism stance. This seems like the type of statement a low-budget, independent art film would make. Ironically, the message is in a movie, produced by the mainstream Twentieth Century Fox, that stars the popular Brad Pitt and was directed with the same sleek, hyperkinetic style found in TV commercials. With its lofty, highbrow statement delivered in a mass culture format, Fight Club fits the postmodern rule of blurring the distinction between high and low culture. Moreover, Jack states in the film that his life has a postmodern feel in that it seems like a copy of a copy of a copy. (Uhls) This is very similar to Baudrillards concept of the simulacrum as an identical copy without an original. (Storey, 177) He tries to glean his identity as a man from Ikea brochures, entertainment magazines, and self-help gatherings--as a result, his life is not tied to any stable or permanent reality. Like the simulation, Jacks life is all surfaces, without depth.


Aesthetically, Fight Club seems to adhere to some characteristics of postmodernism. In Klages Postmodernism, one of the features mentioned is an emphasis on how seeing takes place, rather than on what is perceived. The film shares this reasoning; its use of evident digital imagery has less to do with expanding the boundaries of what can be visualized than with a derangement of, or disregard for, cinematic conventions concerning authenticity and the representation of space and time. For example, in an early, defining scene, Jack, ironically contemplating the hollowness and flatness of his consumerist lifestyle, moves through his condo as it transforms around him into a living Ikea catalog with prices floating in space. Fight Club also has the postmodernist tendency toward reflexivity, or self-consciousness, about the production of the work of art...calling attention to its own status as a production, as something constructed and consumed in particular ways. (Klages) The film continually tinkers with the properties of the medium to emphasize the sheer movie-ness of whats on the screen. For instance, Fight Club first introduces Durden as a series of scratchy, flickering images subliminally spliced into the background of the film. This technique signifies how Durden is Jacks imaginary id, but also reminds us and points out that we are watching a film.


Finally, postmodernism includes a movement away from the apparent objectivity provided by omniscient third-person narrators, fixed narrative point of views for an emphasis on fragmented forms, discontinuous narratives. (Klages) Fight Club follows this pattern by using Jacks first-person narration to twist, rewind, flash forward, and otherwise manipulate every frame of the story. Its the visual equivalent of stream-of-consciousness because the camera illustrates what Jacks thinking just as hes doling out information in his voiceover. The narrative is disjointed in a conversational way. Its as erratic in its presentation as the unreliable narrator is in his thinking.


Like Stiffed, Fight Club ends on a hopeful note. When Durden and Jacks exclusive basement ritual spreads and becomes a very successful corporate franchise, a messianic cult, and a fascist, terrorist paramilitary organization, Jack is appalled and attempts to tame his own creation-run-amok. He realizes that in his struggle to rehabilitate his individuality as a man he has merely gone from one extreme to another, conforming now to a Lord of the Flies morality. Jacks revelation that violence leads him nowhere parallels Faludis observation that while violence uses all the visible aspects of male utility--strength, decisiveness, courage, even skill--its purpose is only to dismantle and destroy. Violence stands in for action but is also an act of concealment, a threatening mask that hides a lack of purpose. (7) For Jack, in an image-conscious world, violence becomes just another celebrated affectation or pose. Fight Club is all about individuals losing sight of their most important dreams in the consumer culture of the American Dream. Jack can never articulate what his dream is, even though Durden tries to tear it our of him. Still, he seems poised to begin life as an adult man when he sees the error of his violent ways, sends away the Fight Club members and stays with Marla, his tortured soul-mate. This ending reflects Faludis view that men and women hold the keys to each others liberation. (55) For men facing an increasingly hollow, consumerized, world, the solution lies not in conquering women or perceiving them as the enemy, but in uniting with them against the hollowness.





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Dr Jekyll and mr hyde

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Heroes and Monsters. Doctor Jekyll qualifies for both titles. A hero is someone who is considered a person who rises to an occasion that other people fear. Also, a person does not have to be a hero to a large number of people, being a hero to one person I important enough. A monster is considered a hero’s enemy. The word monster can be a number of things but the main definition is something or someone that is evil and has no remorse for its actions.


Doctor Jekyll falls under the category of hero because of his struggle to get rid of the evil in man. He does this by inventing a potion that will destroy evil in the mind and body in order to make a perfect and righteous human. Doctor Jekyll has a great cause his battle because he has experienced this “evil” first hand. For the reason that no one knows about his project he is only a hero to himself, for now.


Doctor Jekyll is also considered to be a monster. When Jekyll takes his potion the evil takes over his body and his whole personality changes. He changes from a hero into a monster. He begins to hurt people and cause trouble. The worst part is that he even enjoys his transformation and he has no pity or remorse even though he knows that what he does is wrong. For instance he starts a bar riot and he laughs at it as if it was a joke. When he begins to have Ivy living with him he does far greater damage than in the bar. He not only hurts her physically but mentally. He makes Ivy think that he will counter anything she does wrong in an excruciating way. Ivy is scared to leave the house when he is gone and she is afraid to talk to her friends about him. The end result was her death.


The difference between the two sides of Doctor Jekyll is mainly that one is evil and one is good. While Beatrice is gone and Jekyll is staying with Ivy in the from of Hyde he remains Hyde for a long period of time. This is because being Hyde becomes like a drug to him. He loves to be evil. Towards the end when he is on his way to his wedding party Jekyll believes that he and the people around him are safe because he vows to never drink the potion. Little does he know that the evil has taken over his body and can take over when he feels the slightest emotion.


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In the end he tried to protect the people he loved by telling them that they could not see him anymore. Then he transformed and almost killed them. Once his friend realized what he was he knew that he had to help Doctor Jekyll. When Hyde was about to attack him, the friend knew that he had to kill him. Doctor Jekyll and Mr. Hyde were now dead.


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Courtly love

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relationship is modelled on the feudal relationship between a knight and his liege lord. The knight serves his courtly lady (love service) with the same obedience and loyalty which he owes to his liege lord. She is in complete control of the love relationship, while he owes her obedience and submission (a literary convention that did not correspond to actual practice!) The knights love for the lady inspires him to do great deeds, in order to be worthy of her love or to win her favor. Thus courtly love was originally construed as an ennobling force whether or not it was consummated, and even whether or not the lady knew about the knights love or loved him in return.


The courtly love relationship typically was not between husband and wife, not because the poets and the audience were inherently immoral, but because it was an idealized sort of relationship that could not exist within the context of real life medieval marriages. In the middle ages, marriages amongst the nobility were typically based on practical and dynastic concerns rather than on love. The idea that a marriage could be based on love (as in the Franklins Tale) was a radical notion. But the audience for romance was perfectly aware that these romances were fictions, not models for actual behavior. The adulterous aspect that bothers many 0th-century readers was somewhat beside the point, which was to explore the potential influence of love on human behavior.


Social historians such as Eric Köhler and Georges Duby have hypothesized that courtly love may have served a useful social purpose providing a model of behavior for a class of unmarried young men that might otherwise have threatened social stability. Knights were typically younger brothers without land of their own (hence unable to support a wife) who became members of the household of the feudal lords whom they served. One reason why the lady in the courtly love relationship is typically older, married and of higher social status than the knight may be because she was modelled on the wife of the feudal lord, who might naturally become the focus of the young, unmarried knights desire. Köhler and Duby posit that the literary model of the courtly love relationship may have been invented in part to provide these young men with a model for appropriate behavior, teaching them to sublimate their desires and to channel their energy into socially useful behavior (love service rather than wandering around the countryside, stealing or raping women like the knight in the Wife of Baths tale).


The behavior of the knight and lady in love was drawn partly from


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1. Thou shalt avoid avarice like the deadly pestilence and shalt embrace its opposite.


. Thou shalt keep thyself chaste for the sake of her whom thou lovest.


. Thou shalt not knowingly strive to break up a correct love affair that someone else is engaged in.


4. Thou shalt not chose for thy love anyone whom a natural sense of shame forbids thee to marry.


5. Be mindful completely to avoid falsehood.


6. Thou shalt not have many who know of thy love affair.


7. Being obedient in all things to the commands of ladies, thou shalt ever strive to ally thyself to the service of Love.


8. In giving and receiving loves solaces let modesty be ever present.


. Thou shalt speak no evil.


10. Thou shalt not be a revealer of love affairs.


11. Thou shalt be in all things polite and courteous.


1. In practising the solaces of love thou shalt not exceed the desires of thy lover.


The Art of Courtly Love


From The Art of Courtly Love by Andreas Capellanus


1. Marriage is no real excuse for not loving.


. He who is not jealous cannot love.


. No one can be bound by a double love.


4. It is well known that love is always increasing or decreasing.


5. That which a lover takes against the will of his beloved has no relish.


6. Boys do not love until they reach the age of maturity.


7. When one lover dies, a widowhood of two years is required of the survivor.


8. No one should be deprived of love without the very best of reasons.


. No one can love unless he is propelled by the persuasion of love.


10. Love is always a stranger in the home of avarice.


11. It is not proper to love any woman whom one would be ashamed to seek to marry.


1. A true lover does not desire to embrace in love anyone except his beloved.


1. When made public love rarely endures.


14. The easy attainment of love makes it of little value difficulty of attainment makes it prized.


15. Every lover regularly turns pale in the presence of his beloved.


16. When a lover suddenly catches sight of his beloved his heart palpitates.


17. A new love puts an old one to flight.


18. Good character alone makes any man worthy of love.


1. If love diminishes, it quickly fails and rarely revives.


0. A man in love is always apprehensive.


1. Real jealousy always increases the feeling of love.


. Jealousy increases when one suspects his beloved.


. He whom the thought of love vexes eats and sleeps very little.


4. Every act of a lover ends in the thought of his beloved.


5. A true lover considers nothing good except what he thinks will please his beloved.


6. Love can deny nothing to love.


7. A lover can never have enough of the solaces of his beloved.


8. A slight presumption causes a lover to suspect his beloved.


. A man who is vexed by too much passion usually does not love.


0. A true lover is constantly and without intermission possessed by the thought of his beloved.


1. Nothing forbids one woman being loved by two men or one man by two women





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